Ethics

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  • Natural Moral Law
    • Aquinas, eternal, divine, human and natural law
      • Reason - Primary and secondary precepts
        • Preserving life
        • Reproducing
        • Learning
        • Living in a Peaceful and Orderly Society
        • Worshiping God
      • Apparent vs Real Good's
    • It is a rational, autonomous theory appealing to rationalists and non-believers
      • It has a degree of flexibility
        • There seems something correct in the idea that fulfilling our purpose makes us happy
    • Luther
      • Human beings cannot work out right and wrong themselves
    • The naturalistic fallacy - is to ought
      • there is no such thing as a single human nature (Neilson)
        • The idea of purpose can be challenged
  • Situation Ethics
    • Fletcher : agape
      • four working principles
        • Relativism (no fixed rules)
        • Pragmatism (consequences of our actions)
        • Positivism (we should always act out of love)
        • Personalism (people before rules)
    • Many people agree with the consequentalist approach
      • The idea of agape is in keeping with the idea of Jesus
        • The four working principles seem both practical and value people
          • The ethical theory works in the fur examples (POW pregnant)
    • Barclay
      • it is too optimistic about Human nature
      • it contradicts a lot of the bible
    • Not everyone agrees that the ends justifies the means
    • The concept of agape is too ambitious
  • Kantian Ethics
    • Kant good will and duty
      • 3 formulations of the categorical imperative
        • Human Ends: humane are not ends to means but ends them selves
        • Universability : should act as you would want everyone too act
        • Kingdom of ends: act as if everyone follows the categorical imperative
    • clear example of lying
      • it avoids the problem of util where you treat minorities wrong
        • there is something right about human worth
          • it is in keeping with christian values
    • Singer
      • it removes sympathy and compassion from ethics
    • Blackburn
      • are there fixed moral truths, not paying back loans
    • it ignores the importance of consequences
  • Utilitarianism
    • Bentham and Act Util
      • "greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people"
      • many people agree with the consequentalist approach
        • hedonic calculus gives us guidance about how to act morally
          • Intensity, purity, duration, extent and certainty
      • Noick
        • Ross
          • Vardy
            • It seems too complicated to see into future pleasures
            • Act util values the quantity of pleasure instead of the quality of it
          • we have prima facies duties which over rule this (it ignores justice )
        • Pleasure isn't the only important thing
    • Mill and Rule Util
      • higher and lower pleasures, loose rules as well
      • it solves some of the problems of act util, hedonic being too complicated
      • it is hard to distinguish higher and lower pleasures
  • Euthanasia
    • Sanctity of life
      • life is sacred and so Euthanasia is wrong
        • clear cut
        • supported by the bible
        • logical so can be accepted by atheists
        • not everyone agrees with the bile
        • the bible contradicts itself
    • Quality of life
      • life should be viewed by its value
        • it is how we treat all other creature bar humans
          • it is how many people feel and we should respect their wishes
        • People may change their mind about the quality of life
          • Medical advancements occur too fast they could be cured
    • Natural Law
      • Supports the sanctity of life (precept preserving life)
        • it assumes humans have a purpose
        • many people disagree with ignoring the wishes of the people involved
    • Kantian Ethics
      • means to ends so no euthanasia
        • it avoids the slippery slope of allowing euthanasia in some situations
          • it doesn't recognize peoples wishes
    • Situation Ethics
      • act out of agape
        • it is in keeping with what most people actually believe
          • the concept of agape is too vague
    • Utilitarianism
      • mixed views what most people want
        • it could justify keeping people alive without their consent for family members
        • people could say it is for the greater good but it isn't
        • it promotes happiness and pragmatic response
  • Business Ethics
    • Issues
      • Corporate Social Responsibility
        • businesses should self regulate themselves to be socially responsible
      • Whistle-Blowing
        • When a business behaves unethically an employee might whistle blow
      • Good Ethics is Good Business
        • By being ethical a business is likely to attract more customers
      • Globalisation
        • the spread of business across the world makes ethics more complicated
    • Theories
      • Friedman: Businesses are only responsible to their shareholders
        • Against Social responsibility as the first thing is the profits
      • Hutton: Stakeholder Theory
        • customers, employees and shareholders are the most important
      • Smith: The Invisible-Hand Theory
        • the business is driven by its consumers, so the consumer should by ethically
    • Natural Law
      • what is the purpose of humans, business have the moral responsibility to help us
        • it assumes people have a purpose
          • Quite a few people disagree with things like natural law
    • Kantian Ethics
      • Businesses are responsible to everyone
        • Kant doesn't offer any solutions for conflicting duties
        • promotes justice
          • people before profit
    • Situation Ethics
      • act out of agape (Jesus on Sabbath money lenders)
        • it seems in keeping with what most people actually believe
        • The concept of agape is too vague
    • Utilitarianism
      • Close to invisible hand, majority happy
        • it protects the general welfare of the majority
          • it seems to reflect how most businesses operate
        • there is no protection of the minorities
          • it implies it is the responsibilities for the people to be ethical
  • Meta-Ethics
    • what does good and right mean
      • Hume's Fork: empirically or analytical known
        • ethical statements are neither so cannot be objective
    • Intuitionism
      • G.E. Moore, good is ineffable so cannot be verified, intuition (yellow)
        • Prichard - many people feel their intuitions are self evident
          • Ross - some prima-facie duties we have intuitively
        • it doesn't solve Humes for as they are still not verifiable
          • it replaces natural properties with non-natural properties
            • if morals are intuitive then why do people do wrong
    • Ethical Naturalism
      • good relates to natural qualities (Bentham Util)
        • many peopel do apperar to believe ethical statements are objective
          • people do look at the natural world to work out what is good
        • Hume - nat fal - is to ought
          • Moore - open question, not everyone agrees with what good is
    • Emotivism
      • Ayer - show our emotions (Hurrah Boo Theory)
        • it is supported by Hume's Fork
          • it explains opposing views
        • many people feel they are objective not subjective
          • we cannot justify a legal system
  • The Consience
    • St. Aquinas
      • Syneresis (innate do good) VS Consientia (judgement using reason)
        • Vincible Ignorance: wrong as didnt know rule applied in situation
        • Invincible Ignorance: wrong as didn't know moral rule in first place (not to blame)
        • thee seems something right about real and apparent goods
        • too much disagreement about what is right and wrong
          • it doesn't appeal to Catholics
    • Freud
      • id (unconscious mind) Super ego (morals given by outside) and ego (our conscious self balancing)
        • it explains cultural differences
          • Dawkins: the selfish gene supports super ego
        • people have an innate sense of right and wrong so it cannot be learnt in upbringing
  • Sexual Ethics
    • Pre and Extra marital Sex
      • Christians- against it St. Paul and celibacy- nowadays in a loving relationship is ok
        • Libitarian- ok if two consenting adults
          • Feminism - bible is outdated and male dominated
    • Homo Sexuality
      • Christian Views -  is a sin but some accept it
        • Science- could be caused by genes so is not a choice
    • Natural Law
      • it is against pre and extra marital sex, homosexuality is a choice to rebel against God
        • it is never explained why Sex has to take lace within a marriage
          • it is outdated with modern views
            • sex acts which cannot produce childeren can be seen as sinful
    • Kantian Ethics
      • duty extra is clearly wrong, pre is more lust then doing duty same for homosexuality
        • it reflects the promises made during marriage
          • the view of sex is cold and ignores emotions
    • Situation Ethics
      • is the action carried out through agape
        • it reflects modern views (60s written)
          • the concept of agape it too vague
    • Utilitarianism
      • pre will case happiness, others depends on situation
        • in keeping with modern views
          • it doesn't rely on any religion
            • it prevents extra marital sex when it cases harm
              • it could allow adultery if your partner never finds out
                • it can be abused y majority rule

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