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  • Natural Hazards: Droughts
    • What causes drought
      • Global warming
      • Using too much water
      • Deforestation/desertification
      • Overgrazing
      • Precipitation loss
    • Factors affecting the severity of drought.
      • Climate
        • Areas of low rainfall re more susceptible to drought; temperatures affect evaporation.
      • Social
        • Demand for water is greater in developed countries
      • Economics
        • Whether people or countries can afford reservoirs, wells etc.
      • Politics
        • War can access people's access to water. In developed countries it is easier to implement laws to control people's water use.
      • Technology
        • New and developed can impact the efficiency of water storage and ways to supply water (plumbing)
      • Environment
        • Different land uses affect run off rates: Different types of rock allow water to be stored or run across the surface.
    • Coping with drought
      • LEDCs
        • Most LEDCs are mostly subsistence communities s therefore they won't be able to grow food or make profit.
      • Long term
        • These are responses that result in permanent water management measures, which are designed to secure more water for everyday use.
          • Construction of dams and pipelines installing irrigation systems
      • Short term
        • Temporary methods used to overcome specific drought events.
          • They concentrate on reducing water demand such as water rationing and cash/food aid.
    • How can the impact of drought be controlled?
      • Responses to drought
        • Improve forecasting and monitoring
          • monitoring of temperatures over time may give advance warning of droughts
          • use of satellites to spot early changes in vegetation can help people prepare for droughts
        • Improve water conservation and farming methods
          • Low tech
            • low walls built across fields to reduce run-off
            • areas created for tree planting to conserve moisture in soil
            • using micro-dams to store water that can then be used for irrigation
            • using stone piles to collect water by allowing water to condense onto the cold stones
            • planting drought-resistant crops that can withstand a lack of water
          • High tech
            • drip-and-sprinkle irrigation
            • use of concrete water coolers to utilise hot groundwater
            • improving water supply and irrigation by building reservoirs and new wells
            • cloud seeding - injecting clouds with 'seeds' of silver iodine, salt or dry ice to make the clouds' water or ice particles bigger and yield more rain.


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