Effects & Responses of Earthquakes and Volcanoes

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  • Natural Hazards
    • Mt St Helens (USA 1980 – developed country) -Volcano
      • Effects
        • Primary
          • 63 people were killed. Most by poisonous gases.
          • Hot ash and gas destroyed forests and logging camps
          • Mudflows of ash and water covered areas around the volcano
        • Secondary
          • Ash blocked rivers destroying fishing sites.  This caused flooding.
            • Destroyed crops and livestock
          • Flooding destroyed communications.  Such as roads and bridges.
          • Sediment carried downstream ruined barge transport on the Columbia River
      • Responses
        • Short-Term
          • Communications such as roads and bridges were repaired
          • People were rehoused
        • Long-Term
          • Soil fertility improved due to the ash deposits
          • The volcano is carefully monitored
          • Tourism has increased.  It's helped the local economy
    • Mt Pinatubo (Philippines 1991 – developing country) -Volcano
      • Effects
        • Primary
          • 847 people were killed.
            • 300 from collapsing roofs.
            • 100 from mudflows.
            • The rest from disease
          • 1.2 million people lost homes
          • Road links were destroyed
        • People had to migrate to shanty towns in Manila
        • Manila airport had to be closed.  Which will affect the tourist industry.
        • Spread of disease from contaminated water.
      • Responses
        • Long-Term
          • Evacuation camps built for refugees.
          • Alert systems put into place to warn of eruption
          • Infrastructure was reconstructed.
        • Short-Term
          • 75,000 people were evacuated.
            • USA air helicopters helped.
          • Government shelters put into place
          • Emergency services distributed.
    • Haiti Earthquake (2010 – Caribbean – developing country)
      • Effects
        • Primary
          • Over 220,00 deaths
          • Hospitals collapsed
          • Airport and Port was damaged
          • Damage to the clothing industry
        • Secondary
          • 1.3 people were homeless
          • Businesses were destroyed
      • Responses
        • Short-Term
          • Emergency rescue teams arrived
          • Medical teams treated the injured
          • People pledges money.
        • Long-Term
          • Schools are being rebuilt
          • After one year, there were still 1,300 camps.
          • Programs are paying Haitians to clear rubble.
    • Kobe earthquake (1995 – Japan – developed country)
      • Effects
        • Primary
          • 35,000 people injured.
          • Buildings and bridges collapsed
        • Secondary
          • Buildings destroyed by fire when the gas mains fractured.
          • 316,000 people left homeless
      • Responses
        • Short-Term
          • People were evacutated
          • Rescue teams  searched for survivors for 10 days
        • Long-Term
          • Many people permanently moved away from the area
          • Jobs were created in the construction industry as part of the rebuilding programme

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