Napoleonic War Revision

  • Created by: K4typ
  • Created on: 23-05-18 09:38
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  • Napoleonic War Revision 1807-1815
    • Organisation for the State of War
      • Greater organisation 1803 he created the nobility of the empire which was based more on  meritcoracy 
      • . He made full use of Chappe’s Sempahore system and created a courier express service to increase the speed of military and state messages.
      • In comparison the Revolutionary period armies became even larger.
      • New roads and canals  were built to increase the speed of travel and trade 
      • Greater population density meant foraging armies could be supported in the country side. 
    • The Importance of Conscription
      • The battle of borodino in Russia 1812 was a slogging match due to the size f forces prevented tactical brilliance 
    • The impact of Public Opinion
      • People tired of warfare there began to be some Resistance tired of warfare there began to be some resistance
    • The influence of economic factors
      • Napoleon helped the economy to recover 
      • Continental system hoped to hit the British economy  would make it harder for Britain to continue ot pay subsidiaries to its allies   which was £65.8 million in all
    • Industry and Technology
      • French workshops at St Etienne Produced 97,000 handguns by 1809 had been under 26,000 under the ancien regime  1809 
    • Developments in Weaponry
      • Artilllery
        • British 6 and 9 Pounder guns could fire roundshot 1000 yards and grapeshot at 300 yards at a rate of 6 rounds a minute
        • Lighter Artillery
    • Developments in communications and Transport
      • 1793 Chappe demonstrated his semphore signalling system.  With a line from Paris to Lille Allowed  one sign to be sent in 5 minutes.  
      • Continuation from REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD  Return to foraging by the french Although wellington would severely punish his troops if he found them foraging. 
    • Alliances, plans and their effectiveness
      • Treaty of Chaumont
        • The treaty was intended to draw the powers of the Sixth Coalition into a closer alliance in the event that France rejected the peace terms they had recently offered. Each agreed to put 150,000 soldiers in the field against France and to guarantee the European peace (once obtained) against French aggression for twenty years.[1]
      • Allies had different priorities + jealous Formal alliances à FR defeat
      • Defeated by the 6th and 7th  Coalition
        • 7th Coalition defeated him at waterloo
        • 6th defeated him at Leipzig
    • War Plans and their successes
      • Continental system aimed to blockade Europe 
    • Organisation, command and control of armies
      • Napoleons army  was a meritocracy  but still had people within it such as Soult
      • Napoleons changes  - allowed rapid movement + large numbers in the field = defeat for opponents à other nations following suit eg Prussians.
      • Corps System – 3 infantry divisions, a brigade of cavalry + guns. = 30,000 men, able to fight on own + launch attacks from different directions quickly à speed + mobility 
    • The Impact of Generalship on Warfare
      • Rapid movement and brilliant deployment di not feature in march into Russia.  à 33,000 casualties at battle of Borodino 1812 
      • Napoleon moved his forces rapidly he was bale to defeat the Austrians at Ulm in September 1805 by manoeuvre more than by large scale fighting 
      • He inherited a poorly disciplined and dispirited army
      • Between 1800 and 1815 1.5 million men were enlisted half became casualties
      • NAPOLEON  GENERALSHIP
        • He implemented the  corps system
        • Wellington claimed he was worth 40,000 on the battle field
        • Prepared to take risks and improvise
        • Prepared to take large scale casualties to get victory
        • Spanish ulcer wasted 600,000 lives due to guerrilla warfare
        • The allies copied his tactics  eg 7th coalition
        • He couldn't beat the alliance due to manpower
        • Carnot made the biggest developments
    • The Impact of Quality of Soldiers, both professional and Volunteers
      • After 1807 the quality of Napoleons troops went down this meant he had to use columns rather than more complex manoeuvres
        • Higher casualties
      • Grand Armee 1812 less than half of the 612,000 men were actually french
        • 400,000 of these died in service
      • Different n Nationalities not as motivated as the revolutionary forces especially the ones in Russia. 
    • The Development of Strategy (aims and outcomes)
      • Central Position successful at Battle of Ligny 1815 and Quatre Bras failed at waterloo 
      • British naval power allowed Britain to oppose France and defeated them at Trafalgar in October 1805 
    • Developments The Development of tactics (shock tactics and cult of the offensive)
      • Napoleons tactics had become predictable by the end "They came on in the same old way and we stopped them in the same old way"  - Wellington
      • Central Position
      • Manouvre sur les derriers
      • Decisive battle - failed to get the decisive battle at Borodino in 1812
      • Rapid deployment + powerful long range weapons à change in tactics. Napoleon sought Central position at Austerlitz by breaking enemy line 
    • The Work of Military Theorists and their impact on the conduct of war
      • Napoleon was receptive  to ideas about the concentration and standardisation of artillery.  He then influenced Jomini. 
    • The Development of the idea and practice of Total War (civilian involvement and casualties)  
      • After 1792 There was less of a distinction between civilians and loved ones.

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