Musculoskeletal System

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  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Function
      • Support
        • Support body weight against downward pull of gravity
        • Skeletal muscles exert tone and firmness to maintain distribution of weight
        • Muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons
      • Movement
        • Cardiac
        • Smooth
        • Skeletal
        • Muscles contract and relax working in opposition
      • Protection
        • Classified by shape
        • Long, short, flat and irregular
        • Made of protein, fibre and collagen
        • 99% of all calcium stored in here
        • Protects, stabilise, strength
    • Articular cartilage
      • Thick connective tissue, flexibility of firm plastic - allows movement to occur
      • Cushions, supports, absorbs shock
    • Ligament
      • Reinforces joint capsule and stops over extension
    • Synovial membrane
      • Lines joint capsule and secrete synovial fluid
      • Synovial fluid
      • Lubricated joints
      • Absorbs shock
    • Cardiac muscle
      • Autonomic - no conscious control
      • Even when asleep capable of constant, automatic rhythmical contractions
    • Involuntary muscle
      • Autonomic (smooth muscle)
      • Found in walls of arteries, veins, stomach and intestine
    • Voluntary muscle
      • Full conscious control - involved in voluntary reflxes
      • Striated/ skeletal muscle
    • Spinal joint
      • Movement is restricted to small movements - can slide and glide
      • Vertebrae of neck
    • Ball and socket joints
      • Ball/head shape which articulates with a cuplike socket
      • Allows greatest range of movemen
      • Hip, shoulder
    • Pivot
      • Movement is restricted to small movements - enable to move up and down
      • Neck to vertebra joint
    • Hinge Joints
      • Cylindrical shape where one bone articulates with a depression of an adjacent bone
      • Movement is restricted to bending and straightening movement
      • Elbow, knee
    • Saddle and pivot
      • Movement is a rocking motion which enables your finger to grip things
      • Fingers
    • Sliding/gliding
      • Articulate surfaces are flat - allows limited movement
      • Hand between carpels
    • Fixed joint
      • Bones in skull are held together with fibrous connective tissue
      • Skull


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