Muscular system

  • Created by: Lucy141
  • Created on: 06-05-19 13:21
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  • Muscular system
    • Muscular attachment
      • Origin: point of muscular attachment to a stationary bone
      • Insertion: point of muscular attachment to a moveable bone which gets closer to the origin during muscular contraction
      • Tendon: a fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to bone
    • Antagonistic muscle action
      • Agonist: a muscle responsible for creating movement at a joint, prime mover
      • Antagonistic: a muscle that opposes the agonist providing a resistance for co-ordinated movement
      • Fixator: a muscle that stabilises one part of a body while another causes movement
      • Eg. Flexion (elbow) agonist: Biceps brachii, antagonist: Triceps brachii
      • Paired muscle action, as the agonist muscle shortens to create movement, the antagonist lengthens to co-ordinate the action
    • Muscle contraction
      • Isotonic contraction: muscular contraction while changes length during its contraction. This can occur in two ways: concentric and eccentric
      • Concentric contraction: muscular contraction which shortens, while producing tension
      • Eccentric contraction: muscular contraction which lengthens while producing tension
        • Delayed onset muscle soreness: pain and stiffness felt in the muscle which peaks 24-72 hours after exercise, associated with eccentric muscle contractions
      • Isometric contraction: muscular contraction which stays the same length while producing tension
    • Movement analysis
      • Analysis of the type and cause of bodily movement, including knowledge of the joint type, articulating bones, movement patterns, agonist, antagonist muscle action, contraction type
    • Motor unit and skeletal muscle contraction
      • Motor neuron: a nerve cell which conducts a nerve impulse to a group of muscle fibres
        • Have a cell body in the brain or spinal cord with an extending axon which branches to connect motor end plates to a group of muscle fibres
      • Motor unit: a motor neuron and muscle fibres stimulated by its axon
      • A skeletal muscle can only contract when stimulated by an electrical impulse sent from the central nervous system
      • Sending nerve impulse to the muscle fibres is an electrochemical process which relies on a nerve action potential
        • Action potential: positive electrical charge inside the nerve and muscle cells which conducts the nerve impulses down the neuron and into the muscle fibres
      • Neurotransmitter: a chemical, acetylcholine, produced and secreted by a neuron which transmits the nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft to the muscle fibres
      • All-or-none law: depending on whether the stimulus is above a threshold, all muscle fibres will give a complete contraction or no contraction at all
      • Where the axon's motor end plate meet the muscle fibre called neuromuscular junction, small gap called the synaptic cleft
    • Muscle fibre type and exercise intensity
      • Slow oxidative muscle fibres: type of muscle fibres rich in mitrochondria, myoglobin, capillaries which produces small amount of force over long period of time
      • Fast glycolytic muscle fibres: type muscle fibre rich in phosphocreatin which produces a maximal force over a short period of time
      • Fast oxidative glycolytic muscle fibres: designed to produce large amounts of force quickly, also have capacity to resist fatigue
      • Phosphocreatin (PC): high-energy compound stored in the muscle cell used as fuel for very high-intensity energy production
      • Mitrochondria: structure in the sarcoplasm responsible for aerobic energy production
      • Myoglobin: protein in he muscle responsible for transporting oxygen to the mitrochondria
      • Aerobic work: low intensity, long-duration exercise in the presence of oxygen
      • Anaerobic work: high intensity, short-duration exercise in the absence of oxygen
      • Work:relief ratio: volume o relief in relation to the volume of work performed

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