Muscular system

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  • Muscular system
    • Muscle types
      • Involuntary Muscles
        • Smooth muscle
        • Cardiac muscle
          • Found only in heart
      • Voluntary muscles (link)
        • Skeletal muscle
          • attached to the skeleton
    • Muscle fibre types
      • Type I
        • Speed of contraction
          • Slow
        • Force produced
          • Low
        • Resistance to fatigue
          • High
        • Colour
          • Red
      • Type IIa
        • Speed of contraction
          • Fast
        • Force produced
          • Medium
        • Resistance to fatigue
          • Medium
        • Colour
          • Pink
      • Type IIx
        • Speed of contraction
          • Very fast
        • Force produced
          • High
        • Resistance to fatigue
          • Low
        • Colour
          • White
    • Muscles and movement
      • Isotonic contractions – these occur when a muscle contracts and changes length and there are two types:
        • Isotonic  concentric contraction
          • This involves the muscle shortening. The origin and insertion of the muscle move closer together and the muscle becomes fatter.
        • Isotonic eccentric contraction
          • this involves the muscle lengthening whilst it is under tension. The origin and the insertion move further away from each other.
            • An eccentric contraction provides the control of a movement on the downward phase and it works to resist the force of gravity
      • Isometric contraction
        • this involves a muscle producing tension but staying the same length. This occurs when the body is fixed in one position.
    • Muscle pairs
      • Muscles transfer force to bones through tendons. They move our bones and associated body parts by pulling on them – this process is called muscle contraction.
        • However, muscle contraction cannot act to push the bone back into its original position, and because of this, muscles work in 'antagonistic muscle pairs'.
          • One muscle of the pair contracts to move the body part, the other muscle in the pair then contracts to return the body part back to the original position.
            • Muscles that work like this are called antagonistic pairs.
      • In an antagonistic muscle pair as one muscle contracts the other muscle relaxes or lengthens.
        • The muscle that is contracting is called the agonist and the muscle that is relaxing or lengthening is called the antagonist.
      • To allow antagonistic pairs to work efficiently, other muscles called fixators assist by supporting and stabilising the joint and the rest of the body.
        • Some fixators also assist the agonist and act as a synergist.
          • The trapezius muscle can act as a fixator when the biceps is flexing the elbow joint.
            • The abdominals can act as fixators to stabilise the body for hip and knee movements.

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