Muscle- movement and types

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  • Muscle movement & types of muscle
    • components of elbow joint
      • cartilage reduces friction
      • synovial membrane produces synovial fluid
      • synovial fluid lubricates the joint
      • ligaments hold the bones together to prevent dislocation
      • elbow is an example of a synovial joint
    • muscle movement
      • muscles only produce force when they contract
      • movement at joints needs more than one muscle
      • muscles work i pairs and they are opposite. this is antagonistic pairing.
    • muscle contraction
      • 1: impulses arrive at the neuro muscular junction causing vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic membrane and release acetylcholine into the gap
      • 2: acetylcholine binds to the receptors on the sarcolemma
      • 3: this causes depolarisation
      • 4: depolarisation waves travel down the t-tubules also know and the t-system
      • 5: t-system depolarisation leads to ca2+ released from stored in sarcoplasmic reticulum
      • 6: this then leads on the the sliding filament model.
      • 7: acetylcholine- esterase rapidly breaks down acetylcholine  so contractions only occur when the impulses arrive
    • muscle types
      • muscles are formed of cells elongated to form fibres
      • smooth muslce
        • also know as involuntary muscles
        • innervated by neurones of the autonomic nervous system
        • contractions are not under conscious control Eg intestine or bronchioles
      • cardiac muscle
        • contract on their own - myogenic
        • muscles fibres connected by intercollated discs
        • has low eletrical resistance so nerve impulses pass easily from cell to cell
        • branching helps spread evenly
        • each fibre has a nucleus and some cross striations
      • voluntary muscle
        • contraction is controled consciously
        • many muscle fibres, multi- nucleate, regular cross striations
        • contraction leads to movement of skeleton joints
        • many mitochondria and many myofibrils


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