Multistore Model

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  • Multistore Model
    • Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)
    • Sensory Register
      • 1/2 second Duration
      • Iconic Memory
        • Visual information
      • Echoic Memory
        • Sound based information
      • Info from Environment
      • Information Forgotten
    • Short Term Memory
      • Sensory Register
        • 1/2 second Duration
        • Iconic Memory
          • Visual information
        • Echoic Memory
          • Sound based information
        • Info from Environment
        • Information Forgotten
      • 7+/-2 - Capacity
      • Under 30 Seconds -  Duration
      • Acoustic Code
        • Sound
      • Information Forgotten
    • Long Term Memory
      • Short Term Memory
        • 7+/-2 - Capacity
        • Under 30 Seconds -  Duration
        • Acoustic Code
          • Sound
        • Information Forgotten
      • Information Forgotten
      • Limitless - Capacity
      • Up to a Lifetime - Duration
      • Semantic Code
        • Meaning
    • Supporting Evidence
      • Free Recall Experiment
        • Serial Position Curve
          • Primacy Effect
            • Participants tend to recall the first words because they were rehearsed so they were passed to LTM. This effect reflects recall from LTM.
            • Further Evidence: Slower presentation improves the Primacy Effect but has no effect on the Recency Effect.
          • Asymptote
            • Participants tend to recall the middle portion poorly. The increasing number of items fill STM and are displaced before reaching LTM.
          • Recency Effect
            • Participants tend to recall the last items on a list. Thought to reflect recall from STM because of no displacement.
            • Further Evidence: The Recency Effect disappears if the last words are not recalled straight away, there is no effect on the Primacy Effect.
        • Suggests the existence of two stores as the model suggests.
      • Studies of Brain Damaged Patients
        • HM
          • Could still learn skills - Procedural Memory
            • Mirror Drawing
          • Normal STM but greatly impaired LTM
        • KF
          • Digit span of 2
          • Greatly impaired STM but normal LTM
    • Criticism
      • Too simple
        • There is more than one STM store and more than one LTM store.
        • Does not take factors into account such as strategies people use to remember things
      • Information must flow in both directions from STM to LTM.
        • Evidence from Chunking
      • Brain Damaged Patients don't fully support the model.
        • KF's STM impairment was limited to verbal materials however did not extend to meaningful sounds.
          • Suggest STM has more than one store.
        • HM could still learn new skills but not facts or events
          • Suggests more than one type of LTM
  • Pay Attention
  • Rhearsed

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