Multiple Hazard Zones - The Philippines

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  • Multiple Hazard Zones - THE PHILIPPINES
    • Background
      • Lower middle -income country --> GDP per capita = $5,000
      • Human development index score - 0.75
      • Mountainous country with crowded coastal lowlands.
      • Consists of 7,000 islands (many are very small) spread across the typhoon belt.
      • Population - 91 million (2007)
      • Its northern and eastern coasts face the pacific which is the worlds most TSUNAMI -PRONE ocean.
      • Lies within South-East Asia's major typhoon belts and is effected by about 15 typhoons each year (is struck by 5 or 6)
    • Tectonic Hazards
      • The Philippines lies of the boundary between the Philippine and Eurasian Plate boundary.
        • The Eurasian plate is forced beneath the Philippine, creating the DEEP MANILA OCEAN TRENCH.
          • The plates move in 'jerks' which produce an earthquake with each jerk.  DESTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARY (because one plate is destroyed beneath the other)
      • As the sub ducted Eurasian plate melts into the earths surface, the magma forms a magma chamber. Little lava is produced by the magma solidifies just below the earths surface producing a cap over the volcanoes vent - pressure builds so when it does erupt, there is great force.
    • Mount Pinatubo's Volcanic Eruption - June 1991
      • The biggest eruption the world had seen for over 50 years.
      • The volcano showed signs of eruption in April 1991 with steam explosions and minor earthquakes.
      • A 10km exclusion zone was set up around Pinatubo which was then extended to 30km. And 2 weeks before the eruption a video was released to outline the risks of PYROCLASTIC FLOWS AND LAHARS
      • 12th June - first eruption sent an ash cloud 20km into the atmosphere and  200,000 people had been evacuated.
      • 15th June - second eruption - a dome on the side of the volcano collapsed creating a PYROCLASTIC BLAST and HUGE LAHARS.
        • Effective monitoring of the volcano meant that the death and injury toll was only about 4300 people despite the size of the hazard.
          • 80,000 hectares of farmland were buried beneath ash - disrupting 500,000 farmers and their families - ECONOMIC LOSES WERE $710 million (mainly due to agriculture and property)
    • Other Hazard Risks
      • Some hazards are more complex because they have multiple effects.
        • A 2006 earthquake killed 15 people, injured 100, destroyed/ damaged 800 buildings and caused a 3m high tsunami, triggered landslides and caused a flood which washed away housing.
    • The Guinsaugon Landslide - 2006
      • Guinsaugon is a village in central Philippines.
      • In February 2006 a MUDSLIDE completely engulfed the village and its land (covering 3km squared)
      • Killed about 1150 people.
      • In the Philippines in 2003, 200 people were killed in Landslides.
      • CAUSES OF THE LAND SLIDE:           Physical - in February 2006 torrential rain fell for 10 days (2000mm) which was probably caused by EL NINO EVENTS. The 2.6 magnitude earthquake that stuck just before the slide may have triggered it.   HUMAN - deforestation has taken away soil protection (millions of hectares of forest has been reduced to 600,000 in 50 years) and the replacement of shallow rooted trees further reduces the soil protection.


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