Multi-Store Memory Model

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  • MULTI-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY
    • Components
      • Long Term Memory
        • Maintenance rehearsal transfers information from STM to LTM.
        • A direct relationship between rehearsal and strength of memory was proposed.
        • The more something is rehearsed the better it is remembered.
      • Short Term Memory
        • Information decays quickly if not rehearsed.
        • Verbal rehearsal is the most significant.
        • If new information enter the STM it will decay as it has low capacity.
      • Sensory Memory
        • Composed of several stores - eyes, ears, nose ect.
        • Constantly receiving information only remains a very short time.
        • If attention is focused the data is transferred to STM.
    • Evidence
      • The sensory store: Sperling
        • 2. Recalled after a 50 millisecond display.
        • 1. Asked participants to report 12 letters/digits from a 3 line display.
        • 3. Recall was 42% for all 3 lines and 75% for only one line.
      • Serial Position Effect
        • 2. Words at the beginning were remembered - primacy effect as they were transferred to the LTM
        • 3. Words at the end of the list were remembered - recency effect as they were still in the STM.
        • 1. Participants were given a list of words to recall.
      • Brain Scans
        • Discovered from brain scans that the prefrontal cortex was active during STM tasks.
        • The hippocampus was active during LTM tasks.
        • HM Case Study: His hippocampi were removed and he could not form LTMs after the operation.
    • Evaluation
      • Strengths
        • Clear testable predictions.
        • Provides an accurate account for both structure and process.
      • Not Unitary Stores
        • STM has verbal and visual stores.
          • KF Case Study: He could process visual but no audio information.
        • Speirs
          • Studied 147 patients with amnesia.
          • Their prodcedural memorries were intact but their other two weren't.
        • After studying amnesia patients they found LTM has separate stores
          • Semantic Memory: For knowledge about about the world and words.
          • Episodic Memory - what you did last week
          • Procedural Memory: Learning how to read or how to ride a bicycle.
      • Elaborative Rehearsal
        • Craik and Lockhart: Suggested the processing of items helps us remember them.
        • Craik and Tulving
          • 3. Most participant remembered that semantically processed words.
          • 1. A questionnaire with three types of processing questions
          • 2. Semantic, phonemic and semantic.

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