Multi-Store Model

Research supporting each component of the Multi-Store model 

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 07-01-14 18:29
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  • Multi-Store Model
    • Long Term Memory
      • Continual storage of information, largely outside of our awareness, can be called into working memory when needed
      • Duration of LTM
        • Bahrick et al (1975) : Showed that memories that are more memorable are more meaningful to the person
        • Shepard (1967) : Showed that participants can remember 612 photographs a couple of hours after being shown them, but 4 months later could only recognise 50% of photos
      • Capacity of LTM
        • Presumably there is some physical limit in terms of actual brain cells but it seems likely that we never reach this upper limit in LTM
        • Research: Cliver Wearing suffered from a virus that attacked his central nervous system. He is unable to store memories that are new. His memory lasts between 7 - 30 seconds.
          • He still recalls how to play the piano and conduct a choir despite having no recollections of having received no musical education. This supports capacity of LTM
      • Encoding in LTM
        • It is suggested that LTM are encoded semantically. However research by Frost (1972) found evidence that long term recall is also related to acoustic coding as well as semantic.
        • Nelson and Rothbart (1971) suggested that visual coding in the LTM is used too
    • Short Term Memory
      • Information we are currently aware of or thinking about, comes from paying attention to sensory memories
      • Duration of STM
        • Peterson and Peterson (1959) : Prevented rehearsal of information. Gave a list of trigrams then asked them to count backwards in 3s from a random 3 digit number. Did this for 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds
          • Findings: 90% remembered when 3 second interval, 2% when 18 second interval, when rehearsal is prevented cannot process into LTM so duration of memory decreases.
      • Capacity of STM
        • George Miller (1956) reviewed psychological research and concluded that the span of immediate memory is 7.
          • People can cope well with counting (seven dots) flashed onto a screen but not many more than this. He also found that people can recall 5 words as well as 5 letter - chunking things together enables us to remember more.
        • Cowan (2001) reviewed a variety of studies of STM capacity
          • Concluded that STM is likely to be limited to 4 chunks. Suggesting STM is not extensive as first thought.
      • Encoding
        • Baddeley (1996) tested effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on short and long term recall
          • Gave participants list of words which were acoustically or semantically similar or dissimilar.
            • Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM, whereas semantically similar words posed little problem for STM
        • Brandimote et all (1992): When given a visual task, participants used visual codes. When they were prevented from doing any verbal rehearsal.
          • Before performing a visual recall task the participant had to say 'la la la'
            • In STM normally we translate visual images into verbal codes, but as verbal rehearsal was prevented they did not use visual codes.
    • Sensory Memory
      • Initial contact for stimuli only capable for very short time


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