Multi-Store Model

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  • Multi-Store Model
    • Main Information
      • Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968
      • 3 main components
        • Sensory Store
        • Long Term Memory
        • Short-Term Memory
    • Sensory Store
      • Not under cognitive control
      • Information is raw and unprocessed
        • Coding is unchanged
        • Information from the senses
      • Duration
        • Information held in milliseconds max of 4 seconds
          • If information focused on then its transferred to STM
      • Capacity
        • Very limited
    • Short-Term Memory
      • Capacity
        • 7 +/- 2 items
      • Duration
        • Less than 30 seconds
      • Coding
        • Acoustic
      • Limited capacity and duration
      • Information must be rehearsed
        • If not rehearsed?
          • Information will decay
            • Forgotten
          • Information will be displaced
            • Replaced by new infomation
        • Known as maintenance rehearsal
    • Long-Term Memory
      • Coding
        • Semantic
      • Duration
        • Unlimited
      • Capacity
        • Unlimited
    • Evaluation
      • Strengths
        • PET and fMRI show PFC relates to STM
          • Hippocampus related to LTM
          • Supports different stores
        • Amnesia patients have been found to have lost STM or LTM not both
          • Supports different stores
      • Limitations
        • Over simplifies memory
          • E.g Shallice et al with the case of KF
            • Brain damaged patient showed difficulty with verbal STM but not visual
            • Suggests STM is not a single store
        • Flashbulb memories (Brown and Kulik 1977)
          • Usually for traumatic events, insignificant details imprinted onto LTM without the need for rehearsal
            • This type of memory not accounted for in MSM
    • Types of LTM
      • Declarative(explicit)
        • Episodic
          • Over time these move into semantic memories
          • PFC linked to coding episodic memories
          • Hippocampus and temporal load associated with episodic memory
        • Semantic
          • Strength of semantic memories is positively correlated with the strength of processing that occurs in coding
          • Other areas of temporal lobe associated with semantic memory
      • Non-Declarative (implicit)
        • Procedural
          • Doesn't often require conscious thought
          • Cerebellum and motor cortex associated with procedural memory

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