Movement of substances into and out of cells

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  • Movement of substances into and out of cells
    • Diffusion
      • Is the spreading out of the particles of any substance in a solution, or particles of a gas
        • Resulting is a net movement from an area of higher conc to an area of lower conc
      • Greater difference in conc, faster the rate of diffusion
      • Dissolved substances can move into and out of a cell by diffusion
      • Oxygen required for respiration passes through cell membranes by diffusion
      • With conc gradient and require no energy
    • Osmosis
      • Diffusion of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane that allows the passage of water molecules
      • Differences in concs of solutions inside and outside cell causes water to move into or out of cell by osmosis
      • With conc gradient and require no energy
      • Hypotonic solution- solution which has lower conc of solutes than cytoplasm of cell
      • Hypertonic solution- solution which has higher conc of solutes than inside cell
      • Isotonic- a solution that has the same conc of solutes as inside of cell
    • Active transport
      • Substances sometimes absorb against conc gradient - requires uses of energy from respiration
      • Enables plants to absorb ions from very dilute solutions e.g. root hair cell
        • Similarly, sugar may be absorbed from low concs in intestine and from low cons in kidney tubules


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