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  • Movement
    • bones and exoskeletons anchor muscles and act as levers
    • movement of the body requires muscles to work in antagonistic pairs
    • synovial joints allow certain movements but not others
      • hinge joints
        • flexion
        • extension
      • ball and socket joints
        • wider range of movements
    • skeletal muscle fibres are multinucleate and contain specialised endoplasmic reticulum
      • plasma membrane - sarcolemma
      • endoplasmic reticulum - sarcoplasmic reticulum
      • myofibril
    • muscle fibres contain many myofibrils
      • they have alternating light and dark bands
      • Z - line
    • Each myofibril is made up of contractile sarcomeres
      • sarcomere is between 2 z-lines
      • thin actin filaments
      • thick myosin filaments
    • the contraction of the skeletal muscle is achieved by the sliding of actin and myosin filaments
      • creation of cross bridges with heads of myosin
    • calcium ions and the proteins tropomyosin and troponin control muscle contraction
      • calcium ions make the actin's binding sites exposed and the myosin head to bind (cross - bridges)
        • ATP binds to the myosin and makes them detach
          • ADP P makes myosin heads change their angle
            • ADP and P released and the heads attach to a different spot + push the actin filaments inwards (power stroke)


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