Case Study: Mount Nyiragongo, Congo, January 2002

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  • Mount Nyiragongo Congo January 2002
    • About
      • Steep-sided, active volcano
      • Shield volcano, 40km from part of the East African Rift Valley
        • Faults and plates stretched apart
      • Somali plate and Nubian plate
    • Predication
      • Increased seismic and fumarolic activity in late 2001
    • Cause
      • Tectonics in the Kivu rift resulted in a fracture where lava flowed from fissures
      • Fissures opened at south of volcano and 3 streams of lava from the lake and drained through
      • 60km/h lava speeds, little warning as it reached Goma
    • Environment impacts
      • Lava covered 15% of Goma destroying 30% of the city
      • If the lava reached Lake Kivu or seismic activity disrupted it then harmful gasses may have been released
    • Social impacts
      • Homes destroyed from ash+lava
      • 45 people dead in the first 24hrs, death toll reached 147
      • Lava made it difficult to travel on roads
      • Cholera spread due to lack of sanitation
      • 14 villages destroyed
      • 350,000 people fled to Rwanda
    • Economic impacts
      • Aviation fuel stores exploded as lava flow reached Goma airport
        • Lava crossed the runway
      • 350,000 people dependent on aid
      • Businesses + Jobs lost
    • Control
      • Eruption didn't have much warning but due to the nature of it, 400,000 evacuated
      • Aid agencies gave bedding, clean water, sanitation, food, tents ect.
      • UN supplied 260 tonnes of food, enough for 700,000 people for a week
  • Economic impacts
    • Aviation fuel stores exploded as lava flow reached Goma airport
      • Lava crossed the runway
    • 350,000 people dependent on aid
    • Businesses + Jobs lost

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