Should mothers be the primary care-giver of an infant

  • Created by: Mbegum
  • Created on: 31-12-18 10:34
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  • mothers as primary care-giver
    • Freuds views on the importance of the mother
      • For
        • separation anxiety in infants
          • cause = infant realising libido needs will be unsatisfied
        • mother-infant rela
          • important in oral stage
            • infants = rely on mother to satisfy needs of libido
              • frustration = leads to emo probs
        • Freud
          • a mothers love
            • acts as prototype for future relationships
      • Against
        • historical context
          • at the time = women didn't have right to vote
            • his views reflect the norms of society at the time
        • importance of fathers role
          • father = providing protection in childhood
          • role in boys development via oedipus complex
    • mothers not fathers
      • Against
        • social factors
          • outdated view
            • syaing men = not emotional
          • changing stereotypes
            • both genders have fluidity betw/ roles
        • men = are capable to form close sttachments
          • e.g single male parents
        • biological factors
          • gettlet et al
            • fathers testesterone levels drop
              • Untitled
      • For
        • women = better primary care-givers
        • Fathers = not good primary care-givers
          • not psycholgical equipped
            • to form intense emotional relatinoship
              • due to social + biological factors
        • biological factors
          • oestrogen = is key to caring behav
            • therefore more orientated w/ emotional relationships VS men
        • social factors
          • sex-stereotypes
            • males being sensitive= seen as feminine
              • Heerman et al
                • men = less sensitive to infants cues VS mothers
              • Frodi et al
                • show videotapes of infants crying
                  • no diff in bio response betw/ M+F
    • Feeding
      • For
        • NHS
          • infants = breastfed for 6mon
            • offers healthiest start
              • protection from infections + diseases
            • build strong emo + physical bond
              • importance in emotional development
        • practicality
          • needs to be available to feed = v/ often
            • therefore practical + essential for infants survival = mother is 1 care-giver
        • father
          • role of supporting care-giver
      • Against
        • behaviourist
          • infants classically conditioned
            • to associate mother w/ feeding
              • food
                • unconditioned stimulus
              • pleasure
                • unconditioned response
              • mother
                • conditioned stimulus
                  • producing conditioned response
        • Harry Harlow
          • food doesn't equal love
            • two wire mother
              • monkeys chose comforter VS food
                • therefore emotional bond created via comfort
        • Emerson et al
          • investigated formation of primary attachments
            • strong attachment made
              • carer = responds quick + sensitively to infants needs
    • ethical + social + economical implications
      • society is changing = so are societal views
        • past = only mothers had maternal leave
          • 2015 = shared parental leave
            • change in social policy = shows chaniging views in who should be the primary care-giver
      • economical factors
        • government = introduced tax erlief
          • parents could afford to send children to nurseries
            • parents = go to work = reduce unemployment
    • deprivation damage
      • For
        • Bowlby
          • early + prolonged separation from mother
            • can lead to affection less character
              • likely to become thief
              • difficulty forming relationships
              • maternal deprivation hypothesis
                • mother love important for child's mental health
                  • like how vitamins = important for physical health
        • mothers central role
          • for healthy emtotional development
        • Bowlby
          • proposed attachment to one caregiver = importance for survival
            • this special emotional bond = monotropy
      • Against
        • bowlby
          • maternal deprivation hypothesis
            • 'maternal' = doesn't specifically mean mothers
              • said = "child should have warm rela w/ his mother/permanent mother substitute
        • is the mother-child relationship crucially important?
          • bowlby
            • research = some children show no ill effects from early separation
              • children = had tuberculosis+ years in hospital
                • little contact w/ family
                  • showed problems later in life
                    • the children may have had strong attachment to mothers/sub at first

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