More Witchcraze Case Studies

  • Created by: TaylorYS
  • Created on: 16-05-19 17:06
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  • Case Studies
    • Lancaster
      • Context
        • Socio-Economic
          • Wild and Lawless
          • Poverty at the base of society
        • Family Feud
          • Demdike
            • Elizabeth Southerns (Old Demdike), Elizabeth Device, Alizon Device, James Device, Jennet Device
            • Well known for healing locals
          • Chattox
            • Well known for healing locals
      • Causes/Reasons
        • Poverty
          • However, other parts of England suffered similar issues without subsequent hunts
        • Interpersonal Tensions
        • King James
          • Child Witnesses
            • Jennet Device
              • Gave evidence against her family, and identified those at Malkin Tower
            • James suspended the rules layed out in Daemonologie
      • Victims
        • Alizon Device
          • Beggar from a poor family
          • Refused charity by John Law, who subsequently suffered from a stroke
            • Convinced of her own powers, confessed to bewitching him
              • Questioned by Roger Nowell (experienced JP)
              • Elizabeth admitted that Demdike had a 'witch's mark'
                • Demdike and Chattox both confessed to Nowell
                  • Demdike denounced Chattox's daughter for making clay figures
                    • Anne Redferne
                  • Malkin Tower Meeting
                    • Organised by Elizabeth Device
                    • Those who attended discussed further witchcraft, and blowing up Lancaster Castle
                    • Elizabeth and James Device, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, John and Jane Bulcock, Alice Gray and Jennet Preston accused a trialled as a result
                      • Lots of neighbours came forward to confirm, and James and Chattox confessed
              • James said his sister had confessed to bewitching a local child
              • Alizon accused Chattox of murder by witchcraft
                • Anne Whittle
                  • Anne Redferne
                • Demdike and Chattox both confessed to Nowell
                  • Demdike denounced Chattox's daughter for making clay figures
                    • Malkin Tower Meeting
                      • Organised by Elizabeth Device
                      • Those who attended discussed further witchcraft, and blowing up Lancaster Castle
                      • Elizabeth and James Device, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, John and Jane Bulcock, Alice Gray and Jennet Preston accused a trialled as a result
                        • Lots of neighbours came forward to confirm, and James and Chattox confessed
          • Anne Whittle
          • The End
            • Decline in Official Concern
              • James I grew sceptical in the later years of his reign
                • Exposed fraudulent accusations and judges
              • Most accusations after Charles I took over were thrown out due to lack of evidence
        • North Berwick
          • Context
            • Prior Witchunting
              • Witchcraft Act 1563 (Passed by Protestant Government)
                • Death in all cases of witchcraft
                • Saw no major increase in witchunting
            • Religious
              • Reformation
                • Calvinists seized power in the 1560s
                • Uneasy coexistence in Scotland between Catholics and Protestants
              • Presbyteries > Bishops in terms of influence
                • Looked to God and the Kirk for authority
              • The Kirk saw witchcraft as evil, but it took until the late 1580s for the General Assembly to convince that they needed to be prosecuted to form a godly state
            • Legal System
              • Types of Court
                • Judiciary
                  • Highest Court
                • Circuit
                  • Held in shires by central court judges
                • Regality
                  • Devolved from the crown to try serious crimes
              • Torture legal if approved by the Privy Council
            • Socio-Economic
              • Largely rural society
                • Small, scattered towns
                • Subsistence farming
                  • Harvest failures in the late 16th century resulted in famines
          • King James VI
            • Lonely and dangerous childhood
            • Grew up with a strong aversion to Catholicism
            • Position in th 1580s/90s was insecure, with rebellion led by the Earls of Huntly and Bothwell
            • Anne of Denmark
              • It is unlikely that James' obsession with the devil came from his stay in Denmark
                • However whilst sailing to Scotland, the royal fleet was hit by storms, thought to be weather magic
          • Victims
            • Gilly Duncan
              • Young maid servant, accused of witchcraft due to frequent overnight abscences
              • Torture and the discovery of a 'devil's mark' led to confession, and 70 denunciations
                • Included a mix of men and women
          • Causes/Reasons
            • East Lothian local hunt
        • Boy of Burton
          • John Darrell
            • Arrested for false exorcisms
          • Female stereotype
          • Child Testimony
        • Gunter Case
          • Against patriarchal society
          • Child testimony
        • Witchcraft Acts
          • England
            • 1542
              • Capital offence to practice witchcraft
            • 1563
              • Death penalty for killing
              • Injuring, damaging/stealing goods led to imprisonment (first offence) then death (second offence)
            • 1604
              • Injury became a capital offence on first offence, as well as using dead bodies for witchcraft
          • Scotland
            • 1563 Statute
              • Death in all cases of witchcraft
              • Much harsher than England
            • 1591
              • Newes from Scotland
              • More evidence was accepted

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