morality and social

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  • morality and social legislation
    • decline in morality among upper classes
      • adultery had become fashionable. many people didn't marry or wanted marriage without responsibility.
      • there was excess in luxuries such as clothes, jewellery, houses and food
    • Augustus' family situation
      • behaviour of his daughter and granddaughter julia was scandalous. -he exiled her
        • suet: 'he came to the conclusion that the Elder and the Younger Julia had been indulging in every sort of vice; and banished them'
          • nothing would persuade him to forgive his daughter
      • augustus married three times, taking Livia, his third wife from her husband Tiberius nero when she was pregnant.
      • forced his stepson Tiberius to divorce the wife he loved and marry Julia.
      • married Livia in 36BC and seemed to remain devoted.
    • used tribunician power to legislate on morality
      • 18BC the Julian Laws- concerned with public morality as well as criminal jurisdiction.
        • lex julia
        • did face opposition especiallyfrom the equestrians- cause for adjustment.
          • AD9 lex Papia Poppaea
            • tried to limit excessive luxury through a sumptuary law- but this failed.
              • attempted to protect marriage by regulatingsexual relations and divorce.
                • a man had to divorce his wife before he could take any action against her for suspected adultery.
                  • punishments for the guilty were severe- sent to islands- lands confiscated etc.
                    • men also punished if they failed to divorce an adulterous woman or if they married an adulterous woman.
            • tried to encourage marriage by setting age limits (25 for men, 20 for women)
              • he imposed penalties on the unmarried- they were not allowed to accept inheritance
              • he also gave rewards to men and women with children- preference given in elections to family men.
      • Those that proposed changes in AD9 were unmarried.


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