Moral argument

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  • Moral Argument
    • Kant
      • there is an objective moral law that reason tells us that we must obey
        • this requires us to attain the highest good or 'summum bonum'
          • we can only be obliged to do something if it is possible for us to do
            • we cannot attain the summum bonum unless there is a god to assist us
              • since we are obliged to attain summum bonum, god must exist to ensure that we can achieve which we are duty bound to do
      • if we use practical reason then we should become certain that there is a god
      • a person has a overwhelming sense of moral duty, which kant call the categorical imperitive
        • 'duty for duty's sake
      • 'ought implies can'
      • postulates the need for an afterlife
      • commit acts you know would be right as a universal law
        • treat people as ends in themselves not means to an end
          • act as if you live in the kingdom of ends
    • Freud
      • our sense of moral obligation is not objectively binding but comes from our own minds
        • comes from the subconscious mind called 'the superego'
          • caused by the psychological conflict between our most basic desires and the controlling influences of society and our paarents
      • religion is 'obsessional neurosis.
      • id, ego, superego
        • ID - basic instincts and primitive desires
          • EGO - perceptions of the external that makes us aware of the 'reality principle', one's most outward part and personality
            • SUPER-EGO - the unconscious mind which consists of - a. the ego-ideal which praises good actions b. the conscious which makes you feel guilty for bad actions
      • morality is developed as we grow
    • J. L. Mackie
      • evidence for the biological, sociological and psychological explanations for conscience means that that the moral argument no longer has a valid defence


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