Montserrat

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  • Montserrat
    • Location
      • West Indes, Lesser Antilles
      • 12500 population
      • Local people not aware they lived near a volcano
      • Air studios set up by manager of the Beatles
      • Electronics factory and rice processing plant
    • Tectonic setting
      • Formed at oceanic and oceanic convergent margin
      • North American plate subducted beneath Caribbean plate
      • Stratovolcano
        • Composed of ash layers from previous eruptions
    • Hazards
      • Primary
        • Ash
        • Pyroclastic flows (got bigger)
      • Secondary
        • Lahars
    • Eruptions
      • The Soufriere Hills volcano began erupting in 1995
      • July 1995 - eruption of ash
      • March 1997 - Pyroclastic flow created new delta
        • Areas evacuated
        • 19 people killed
        • 9000m high eruption cloud
        • Destroyed airport
      • 1999 - large eruption from dome collapse
      • 2000 - small explosion produced pyroclastic flow
        • Ash cloud rose to 10'000 feet
      • 2003 - later blast
      • 2008 - 12km ash cloud
      • 2010 - eruption when dome collapsed
        • 4 year pause
        • GPS still predicts it will erupt again
    • Management
      • Seismic activity found but not clear what was going on
      • VDAP came when the eruption occurred in 1995
      • Past eruptions made people lose faith in predictions therefore didn't listen too them
    • Responses
      • People evacuated (7000) to the north
      • 5000 lived in shelters for up to 2 years
      • Residents told to wear helmets and masks outdoors
      • Divided Montserrat into areas o how sfe they are
      • Activity of the volcano is monitored by MVO
      • Seismograph network was established around volcano to measure earthquakes
        • GPS to check ground movements
    • Currently
      • Montserratians have not gone back
        • 4000 moved to the UK
      • New problems like crime, HIV and change in culture
      • Hopefully the northern part of the island will be able to sustain a population of 10000
      • Tourist industry increased with people coming to see the volcano
      • British government funded 75 million pounds fo redevlopment
    • Effects
      • 19 deaths - 3 bodies recovered
      • Ash covered everything
      • Flows destroyed everything
      • Ash impacts on health
      • South of island destroyed by flows/lahars/ash
      • Plymouth (capital city) and 19 villages were abandoned
      • Wildlife is affected (Montserrat tree frogs)
      • Coastline is chnaging
      • Closed airports
      • Increase in tourism
      • Unemployment rose to 50%
      • Skill shortage
      • Agriculture stopped
      • Traffic congestion

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