geography - montserrat

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  • Montserrat
    • where?
      • Caribbean - Soufriere Hills
    • when?
      • began erupting in August 1995, and erupted in June 1997
    • plate boundary?
      • destructive - Atlantic and Caribbean plates
    • types of eruption?
      • 1995 - clouds of volcanic            ash         1997 - pyroclastic flow
    • effects
      • primary
        • 2/3 of island covered in ash
          • most of infrastructure destroyed
        • 50% of population evacuated to North of island
          • very cramped, disease spread, lack of clean water, many peolple left - by 1997 pop fell to 3500
        • 23 people died
          • small number - effective evacuation process - expensive
        • Plymouth destroyed
          • business lost
        • airport and port closed
          • money lost, hard to rescue and get aid in
        • schools and hospitals destroyed
          • education disrupted, couldn't be used for homeless, nowhere for injured to be treated
      • secondary
        • most of Southern area destroyed so people had to live in cramped North area
          • lasted for months, British government spend £200 million to rebuild
        • transport was a problem
          • tourists lost and money, airport wasn't rebuild for 10 years
          • tourist industry suffering as there are few visitors
            • lost money damaged economy
        • tourist industry suffering as there are few visitors
          • lost money damaged economy
        • over half the population left and have not returned
          • people had lost homes and businesses, by 2010 pop rose to 5000
    • responses
      • short-term
        • evacuation, abandoning capital
        • British government gave £41 million
        • unemployment rose, money given to individuals to help them move
        • riots occured
      • long-term
        • exclusion zone set up, 3 yr redevelopment programme
        • younger people left, volcanic observatory built, islands taught risks
        • new roads and airport built, services in North expanded, many people moved back by 2005
        • growth in tourism due to volcano

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