Monoclonal Antibodies

  • Created by: Abc312
  • Created on: 11-05-18 21:26
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  • Monoclonal Antibodies
    • They first inject a mouse with an antigen so the white blood cells make a particular antibody.
      • The lymphocytes (white blood cells) are taken out of the mouse
        • They are combined with a particular kind of tumour cell.
          • This cell is called a hybridoma which divides quickly to make many copies of that antibody.
            • This produces a lot of clones that can be collected and purified to make a lot of that antibody.
    • Monoclonal antibodies are useful as they only bind to a specific molecule so they can be used to target specific cells in the body.
    • They can be used in pregnancytests
      • HCG is found in the urine of pregnant women. Pregnancy tests detect this hormone.
        • The part of the test that you wee on has antibodies to the hormone attached to  blue beads.
          • The test ***** has more antibodies stuck to it so they cannot move
            • If you are pregnant the hormone binds to the antibodies on the blue beads
              • The urine moves up the sticks carrying the hormone and the beads
                • These bind to the antibodies on the ***** and turn it blue.
            • If you aren't pregnant the urine carries on but the blue beads have nothing to stick to so it doesn't blue.
    • Can be used in laboratories to measure hormone levels or detect pathogens
    • In research to identify specific molecules by finding to them with a fluorescent dye.
    • They are not used as much as first hoped because they have more side effects than expected.
    • They can  treat some diseases like cancer by binding to a radioactive substance/ toxic drug to stop cells dividing and growing.
      • This is delivered to cancer cells without harming other cells in the body.

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