Monarchy and Kingship in Medieval Period (2) Systems of Monarchy

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  • Monarchy and Kingship in Medieval Period (2) Systems of Monarchy
    • These three are lecturers categories (won't appear in history books)
    • Notional
      • e.g. The Holy Roman Empire
      • Where ruler exercised least amount of power or authority
      • Term Holy Roman Emperor not used until after 1200
      • Use of Holy
        • Emperor's power had to be endorsed by the Pope
        • Goes back to Coronation of Charlemagne in 1800
      • Emperors were elected to office
        • Electoral
      • Emperors were first amongst their fellow noblemen
      • Emperors found it difficult to assert authority
        • Evidence of how royal blood helped stable rule with authority
    • Feudal
      • e..g. France
      • definition of feudal
        • reciprocal relationship between lord and vassal based on landholding
      • Domain
        • land held directly by king
      • Suzerainty
        • Sovereign exercising control
      • Vassal
        • Individual who pays homage to lord in return for protection
      • Homage
        • public recognition of lord's superior standing/authority
      • Dukes possessed more land than King himself
      • In 1032, France is not too different from Holy Roman Empire (notional monarch)
      • Land
        • Wealth
          • Power
            • Influence
      • Land therefore is key to ruling successfully
      • French Kings acquired more land as time progressed
        • King would achieve this by marrying his sons and daughters to other Dukes and then incorporating them into royal domain
        • Armies grew strong enough to conquest outliers
        • Reversion
          • Duke dies without leaving any heirs - land reverts to Crown
    • Sovereign
      • e.g. England
      • where King's power is not restricted by feudal or territorial matters
        • Almost completely without challenge
      • Control Kingdom's resources
        • Taxation
        • Sovereign king can tax subjects and use wealth of realm for his purposes
        • Requires sophisticated centralised government system
      • Control of coercion
        • Monopolises military power
      • Controls means of persuasion
        • Controls Church
        • Arm of Secular state and serves king's purpose
    • Centralisation does not equate with political stability
      • Greater stake subjects have in your rule - the more centralised you are

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