Human Biology Unit 1 - Molecules OCR

Mindmap of molecules section of unit 1

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  • Molecules
    • Proteins
      • Primary
        • Sequence / Chain of Amino Acids
          • Polypeptide
          • Break the chain = Hydrolysis - Water + Enzyme
        • Peptide Bond
      • Secondary
        • Hydrogen Bonds
        • Folding of polypeptide chain
          • Alpha helix
          • Beta-Pleated Sheet
      • Tertiary
        • Hydrogen
          • Weak
        • Folds into a 3D shape
        • Disulphide
          • Strong - Amino Acids - Sulphur R Groups
        • Ionic
          • Amino Acids - Charged R Group
        • Hydrophobic
          • Interactions between non-polar R groups
      • Condensation Reaction
        • Two amnio acids joined by a peptide bond
      • Quaternary
        • 2 Polypeptide chains
        • Haemoglobin
          • 4 polypeptide chains - each with a heam - prosthetic group
          • 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
          • O2 combines with haem - molecule changes shape so the next haem can pick up O2
            • In the middle of each haem group = iron - combines with oxygen , each haemoglobin molecule = 4 oxygen
        • Enzymes and Antibodies
    • Carbohydrates
      • C6H1206
        • Alpha and Beta
          • Beta = inverted
      • Monomer
        • Monosacchariide
        • Alpha Glucose
          • Sugar - Soluble -Affects Osmosis
      • Polysaccharides
        • Glycogen
          • Alpha Glucose
          • insoluble - No Osmotic Effect
          • Compact - lots of glucose
          • Branched = Easily Hydrolised
        • Cellulose
          • Beta Glucose
          • Long branched strands
          • Hydrogen Bonds
          • Insoluble
      • Condensation Reaction
        • Forms a glycosidic bond
    • Lipids
      • Triglycerides
      • Fatty Acids
        • Saturated
          • Single Bonds - High proportion of H bonds
        • Unsaturated
          • Double Bonds
      • Phospholipids
        • Cell surface Membrane
          • Hydrophobic tail- Hydrophillic Head
      • Uses
        • Cell membrane
        • Energy store
        • Healthy Cholestrol
        • Steriods
      • Condensation Reaction
        • Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
        • Ester Bond
    • Water
      • Polar Molecule
      • Attracted to other water molecules by hydrogen bonds
        • positive H atoms are attracted to negative O atoms
      • Water is a good solvent as it surrounds polar or charged molecules
      • Properties
        • Solvent
          • Acts as a transport for polar or charged molecules
        • High Latent Heat
          • For vaporisation - makes cells hiigh in water thermostable and allows cooling for thermoregulation
        • High Cohesion
          • Molecules stick together  = ideal for support , e.g. amniotic fluid
        • Good Lubricant
          • Due to being cohesive and adhesive
            • Mucus
      • Plasma
        • straw coloured liquid of blood
        • Ions , Glucose , Amino Acids , Hormones , Urea and CO2 + WATER
      • Tissue Fluid
        • Returned to the blood plasma via capillaries
          • Hydrostaic pressure
            • Capillaries = more narrow than arterioles - so pressure builds up which forces tissue fluid out the blood plasma
            • At the end of the venule the pressure is higher outside the capillary and tissue fluid is forced back in
          • Osmotic Forces
      • Lympth
        • Consists of vessels that drain excess fluid to re join the blood system in the chest cavity
        • Contains the same solutes as tissue fluid , less oxygen and nutrients but more CO2 and wastes
        • Also contains WBC that engulf and destroy pathogens
    • Transportation
      • Bulk Transport
        • Endocytosis - molecules move to M surface , M invaginates an forms a vesicles , vesicle moves into cytoplasm
        • Exocytosis- vesicle moves towrds membrane , vesicle fuses with membrane , molecule released to outside of cell
      • Active Transport
        • Against the CG , via a carrier protein using ATP
      • Facilitated Diffusion
        • Charged Molecules or water soluble ones cannot move through membrane
          • Carrier Proteins
            • Change shape and release molecules on the other side of the membrane
          • Channel Proteins
            • Form pores allowing some molecules to pass through
        • Passive
      • Diffusion
        • Net movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from high - low concentration across a partially permeable membrane
        • Passive
        • Increased by : Steepness , surface area , distance and temperature
      • Water Potential
        • Isotonic
          • Same water potential as another solution , diffusion at the same rate
        • Hypertonic
          • solution outside cells contain less water - water leaves cells by osmosis
        • Hypotonic
          • soultion outside cells contains more water , water enters cells by osmosis
  • Transportation
    • Bulk Transport
      • Endocytosis - molecules move to M surface , M invaginates an forms a vesicles , vesicle moves into cytoplasm
      • Exocytosis- vesicle moves towrds membrane , vesicle fuses with membrane , molecule released to outside of cell
    • Active Transport
      • Against the CG , via a carrier protein using ATP
    • Facilitated Diffusion
      • Charged Molecules or water soluble ones cannot move through membrane
        • Carrier Proteins
          • Change shape and release molecules on the other side of the membrane
        • Channel Proteins
          • Form pores allowing some molecules to pass through
      • Passive
    • Diffusion
      • Net movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from high - low concentration across a partially permeable membrane
      • Passive
      • Increased by : Steepness , surface area , distance and temperature
    • Water Potential
      • Isotonic
        • Same water potential as another solution , diffusion at the same rate
      • Hypertonic
        • solution outside cells contain less water - water leaves cells by osmosis
      • Hypotonic
        • soultion outside cells contains more water , water enters cells by osmosis

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