Molecules Of Life

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  • Molecules Of Life
    • Mitochondria are tiny structures found in cells.
      • Tissues and cells that need a lot of energy have a lot of mitochondrias in their cells.
        • An example would be: liver cells, and muscle cells. They both contain a lot of mitochondria.
    • Some cell structure are too small to be seen with a light microscope.
      • An example would be Ribosomes.
        • They are found in cytoplasm and are the sight of protein synthesis.
    • The Cells Nucleus contains chromosomes
      • They are long coils of DNA and are divided into regions called Genes.
      • The information contained in genes is in the form of coded instructions called the genetic code
      • DNA controls the production of different proteins
      • These are needed for the growth and repair of cells.
    • Structure of DNA
      • There are four different types of bases, shown as A, T, C and G
      • In DNA, two strands coil together to form adouble helix.
      • There are chemical cross-links between the two strands, formed by pairs of bases.
      • Proteins are made in the cytoplasm of a cell, not in the nucleus
      • Genes cannot leave the nucleus, so a copy of the gene is needed.
      • This copy is able to leave the nucleus to go into the cytoplasm so that proteins can be made by the cell.
      • A – T  G – C
      • Proteins are made from lots of amino acids joined together.
      • The sequence of bases determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule.
      • The genetic code needed to make a particular protein is carried from the DNA to the ribosomes by a molecule called mRNA. Making:mRNA from DNA is called transcriptionProteins from mRNA is called translation


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