Module 3- Biodiversity and Evolution (NOT FINISHED)

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  • Module 3- Biodiversity and Evolution
    • Species - group of indervidual organism similar in appearence, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and genetics, who's members are anle to inbreeed freely to produce fertile offspring.
    • Biodiversity - Variety of life, the range of organisms to be found.
    • Sampling
      • Random sampling- studying a small part of the habitat and assuming it contains a representative set of species.
      • Using random quadrats -  identify plants in your quadrat then measure their abundance.
      • Using a transect - record the plants touching the line at set intervals
    • Sampling Animals
      • Sweep netting - animals such as insects will be caught in the net as you sweep along the vegetation - animals may crawl or fly away so you need to be quick.
      • Pooter
      • Collecting from Trees - white sheet under a branch, knocking small animals from the tree into the sheet. -  be quick as animals may crawl or fly away.
      • Pitfall Trap - set in the soil to catch any animals who move across it.
      • Tullgren Funnel - collects small animasl from leaf littler and drives them down into a jar.
    • Species Richness - the number of species present in the habitat
    • Species Evenness - measure of the relative numbers or abundence of inderviduals in each species.
    • Simpsons Diversity index - D=1-(E(n/N)2)
    • Classification
      • The 5 Kingdoms
        • Prokaryotes - no nucleaus, loop of naked DNA, no membrane bound organelles.
        • Protoctists - free living, show animal or plant like features, have autotrophic or hetrotrophic nutrition
        • Fungi - Have a myclelium which consists of Hyphae, walls made of chitin, multinucleate cytoplasm, free living, decay organic matter
        • Plants - multicellular, cellulose cell wall, produce multicellular embryos from fertilised eggs, autotrophic nutrition
        • Animals - multicellular, hetrotrophic nutrition, fertilised eggs that develop into a ball of cells, able ot move
      • The 8 Taxa - 1.Domain 2.Kingdom 3.Phylum 4.Class 5.Order 6.Family 7.Genus 8.Species
        • Phylum Anthropodia - multi-legged with an exoskeleton
        • Phylum Cordata - vertabrates
      • Modern Classification
        • Cytochrome C: a protein used in respiration, all organisms have this, but its not identicle in species, the Amino Acid sequences are different, therefore if the sequences are very similar the species are closely related if they are very differnt they are not related.
        • DNA: all organisms used DNA/RNA. DNA provides the genetic code, the code is the same in all organisms meaning that a paricular peice of DNA/RNA codes fro the same protein in a bacterium as in any other organism, the more similar the sequence the more closely related the species.
    • Continuous Variation - variation where there is a full range of intermediate phenotypes between two extremes
    • Adaption
      • Adaptions help the organisms cope with environmental stresses and obtain the things they need to survive
      • Find enough food or synthesis well
      • Find enough water
      • Gather enough nutrients
      • Defend itself
      • Survive changesin temperature
      • reproduce sucessfully


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