Module B1: You and Your Genes

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  • Created by: Dyl2707
  • Created on: 27-06-16 22:21
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  • Genes, Chromosomes and DNA
    • Most cells in your body have a nucleus. this contains all of your genetic material.
    • The genetic material in the nucleus is arranged into chromosomes and there is 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body.
      • Each chromosome is one very long molecule of DNA that is coiled up. this is what gives it its shape
    • A gene is a short length of a chromosome.
      • A gene controls the development of different characteristics eg: hair colour, and how an organism functions
      • Genes can exist in different versions. each version gives a different form of a characteristic, like blue eyes or green eyes. the different versions of the same cell are called allels.
      • Each gene is a code for making a certain protein.
        • Having different versions of proteins means that we end up with different charecteristic
        • Some proteins are structural proteins.
          • They are part of things like skin, hair, blood and the cytoplasm in our cells. eg: collagen is a structural protein that is found in tendons bones and cartilages
        • Other proteins are functional proteins. for example enzymes are proteins that help with digestion by breaking down food molecules.
    • An organism genotype is all of the genes it has and a phenotype is the characteristics that the organism displays.

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