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  • Modernity
    • Modernity
      • characterised by the period following the Enlightenment but most evident in the period following the industrial revolution.
      • It extended to the 1970s, some argue it still exist
      • A structural approach to society, with importance of social instituions, social structures and social processes
      • Bell and Newby (1970s)
        • the mass industrialisation and urbanisation of society as being a cataylst of the modern eras gowth for urban areas, and shifting from agriculture to manufacturing.
        • The 70s is  characterised by the growth of capitalism and private industries which developed addititional social classes - such as middle class.
      • Max Weber
        • modernity was not only characterised by industrialisation and urbanisation, but by changes in our social attitudes.
          • In particular the shift from spirituality to scientific rationality
        • believed there was a gradual secularisation (delcine in religious belief), however morality stayed the same.
        • bureaucracy is a necessity in the modern era, with the growth of large organisations use to organise society, e.g. welfare state, NHS, education system.
      • Contemporary Evidence of modernity
        • Things like traditional families still exist, altough they have been slightly altered.
        • metanarratives such as Marxism and feminism still exist,  however racial inequality has arguably declined in recent years.
        • Webers ideas of scientific rationality is evident throughout most institutions. Welfare,employment, education and healthcare.
          • individual differences are often neglected,  attitudes to human behaviour from large institutions have not left modernity behind.
          • quantitative approaches are used to make judgements, rather than hollistic views of a persons social circumstances,
    • Late Modernity
      • (Giddens) Era of rapid change between modern and postmodern eras
      • (Beck) Increased uncetainties of income, marriage, family and  individuals are insecureof their future
      • (Bauman) era of fluidity in gender, sexuality, era characterised by change
      • Key concepts
        • Increased insecurity - in relationships, employment, environment, science
        • Reflexivity - individuals reflect upon their place in society as a result of increasingchanges
        • Interconnectedness - Globally connected but in a impersonal way and vicitmised to increased surveillance
      • Contemporary Evidence of late modernity
        • Serial monogamy and changes to relationships
        • Media usage - impersonal interactions on social media
        • Insecurity of employment - Zero hour contracts, self-employment
      • Criticisms
        • Definitions of class might have changed, but polarisation of views demonstrates structural forces in society
        • Is late modernity a global phenomenon? Have other societies rejected Western indeals?
        • Are risk and insecurities the product of social changes, or are they the product of capitalism?
    • Post Modernity
      • Era after moderninity arguably emerging in the late 70s and accelerated after the collapse of communism in the late 80s
      • Increased globalisation and access to knowledge arguably changing old metanarratives
      • Diverse cultures, lifestyle choices, sexuality, gender and families
      • Lyotard
        • People no longer blindly follow metanarratives
          • Contemporary Evidence of late modernity
        • People develop their own narratives
          • Contemporary Evidence of late modernity
        • Due to the diversity of opinions, solutions to problems are small scale instead of all encompasing
        • Baudrillard
          • Unable to distinguish media imagery with reality


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