Modern Mammals 2

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  • Modern Mammals
    • Dermoptera (Colugos)
      • Two species
      • Kite-shaped membrane that spreads along the side of body between very long legs
    • Scandentia
      • Problem phylogenetically
      • 'primate-like' features 
        • Relatively large cranium
        • Permanent scrotum
        • Orbits are completely encircled by bone
        • Virtually lack all main defining primate features
        • Shrew-like dentition & elongated thin skull
    • Primates
      • Shared derived features
        • Locomotion
          • Grasping hands & opposable thumbs and toes
          • Hallux bearing nail, nails on digits (may be lost)
          • Elongation of the heel bone
          • Hindlimb dominance and shift of centre of gravity
        • Brain and vision
          • Stereoscopic vision
          • Enlargement of orbital cavity
          • Increased brain size (especially foetal size: mass ratio)
        • Reproduction
          • Scrotal testes
          • Long gestation and low litter size
          • Late sexual maturity
          • Many have long lifespans compared to body size
      • Types
        • Strepsirrhini (suborder)
          • Lemurs
          • Lorises & galagos
        • Haplorrhini
          • Tarsiers
        • Platyrrhini (suborder- New World Monkeys)
          • Prehensile tail for arboreal living
        • Catarrhini (suborder- Old World Monkeys)
          • Diverse habitats (dry vs forest)
          • Some prehensile tails
          • Some arboreal, some truly terrestrial
          • Sexual diamorphism more prominent (size, colouration)
          • Old World monkeys and apes
    • Rodentia and Lagomorpha
      • Lagomorpha
        • Pikas and rabbits
        • 2 pairs of upper incisors
        • Second pair of peg-like incisors
        • Specialised gut for digesting cellulose
        • Tail quite short
      • Rodentia
        • One pair of elongated incisors and constantly growing
        • Large space between incisors and cheek teeth
        • 3 clades
        • Appox. 42% of all mammals are rodents
        • Rapid radiations (linked to fast lifecycle)
        • Worldwide distribution, many ecological adaptation to fossorial, arboreal and terrestrial
        • Convergent evolution for many ecotypes
    • Euliptoyphyla
      • Used to be insectivores and often considered as protoypic Eutherian mammals
      • Moles, moon rates (hedgehogs)
      • Primitive forms of echolocation
      • Ancestral dentition similar to early mammals
      • Specialisations include primitive echolocation and toxic saliva
    • Chiroptera
      • Yinpterochiroptera
        • Includes Megachiroptera
          • Most do not echolate and search for fruit by sight (2 species use the tongue to echolate)
      • Yangochiroptera
        • Most others (13 families)
      • Microchiroptera
        • All other bats echolocate using larynx.
          • Call through mouth or in some those with nose leaves, they go through nostrils
      • Characteristics
        • 1200 species
        • Cosmopolitan apart from arctic regions
        • Range of diets
    • Cetartiodactyla
      • Paraxonic feet (plane of symmetry between 3 and 4 digits)
      • Talus (ankle bone) double pulley system as a way to conserve energy over long distance movement
      • Reduced or absent canines or incisors
        • Except CWD & muntjac
      • Nasal bones not expanded backwards
    • Cetaceans
      • Almost hairless, sebaceous glands absent
      • Rostrum elongated, external pinnae lost
      • Clavicle absent, wrist and elbow joints are immobile- for paddling
    • Odd-toed ungulates
      • Mesaxonic feet
    • Hindgut fermenters
      • Including Perissodactyla
        • Mainly grazers: relatively few species remain globally. Used to be more biodiverse
    • Foregut fermenters
      • Including ruminant Artiodactyla
  • Carnivora
    • Caniformia: Dog-like
      • Generally more omnivorous
    • Feliformia: Cat-like
    • Modern Mammals
      • Dermoptera (Colugos)
        • Two species
        • Kite-shaped membrane that spreads along the side of body between very long legs
      • Scandentia
        • Problem phylogenetically
        • 'primate-like' features 
          • Relatively large cranium
          • Permanent scrotum
          • Orbits are completely encircled by bone
          • Virtually lack all main defining primate features
          • Shrew-like dentition & elongated thin skull
      • Primates
        • Shared derived features
          • Locomotion
            • Grasping hands & opposable thumbs and toes
            • Hallux bearing nail, nails on digits (may be lost)
            • Elongation of the heel bone
            • Hindlimb dominance and shift of centre of gravity
          • Brain and vision
            • Stereoscopic vision
            • Enlargement of orbital cavity
            • Increased brain size (especially foetal size: mass ratio)
          • Reproduction
            • Scrotal testes
            • Long gestation and low litter size
            • Late sexual maturity
            • Many have long lifespans compared to body size
        • Types
          • Strepsirrhini (suborder)
            • Lemurs
            • Lorises & galagos
          • Haplorrhini
            • Tarsiers
          • Platyrrhini (suborder- New World Monkeys)
            • Prehensile tail for arboreal living
          • Catarrhini (suborder- Old World Monkeys)
            • Diverse habitats (dry vs forest)
            • Some prehensile tails
            • Some arboreal, some truly terrestrial
            • Sexual diamorphism more prominent (size, colouration)
            • Old World monkeys and apes
      • Rodentia and Lagomorpha
        • Lagomorpha
          • Pikas and rabbits
          • 2 pairs of upper incisors
          • Second pair of peg-like incisors
          • Specialised gut for digesting cellulose
          • Tail quite short
        • Rodentia
          • One pair of elongated incisors and constantly growing
          • Large space between incisors and cheek teeth
          • 3 clades
          • Appox. 42% of all mammals are rodents
          • Rapid radiations (linked to fast lifecycle)
          • Worldwide distribution, many ecological adaptation to fossorial, arboreal and terrestrial
          • Convergent evolution for many ecotypes
      • Euliptoyphyla
        • Used to be insectivores and often considered as protoypic Eutherian mammals
        • Moles, moon rates (hedgehogs)
        • Primitive forms of echolocation
        • Ancestral dentition similar to early mammals
        • Specialisations include primitive echolocation and toxic saliva
      • Chiroptera
        • Yinpterochiroptera
          • Includes Megachiroptera
            • Most do not echolate and search for fruit by sight (2 species use the tongue to echolate)
        • Yangochiroptera
          • Most others (13 families)
        • Microchiroptera
          • All other bats echolocate using larynx.
            • Call through mouth or in some those with nose leaves, they go through nostrils
        • Characteristics
          • 1200 species
          • Cosmopolitan apart from arctic regions
          • Range of diets
      • Cetartiodactyla
        • Paraxonic feet (plane of symmetry between 3 and 4 digits)
        • Talus (ankle bone) double pulley system as a way to conserve energy over long distance movement
        • Reduced or absent canines or incisors
          • Except CWD & muntjac
        • Nasal bones not expanded backwards
      • Cetaceans
        • Almost hairless, sebaceous glands absent
        • Rostrum elongated, external pinnae lost
        • Clavicle absent, wrist and elbow joints are immobile- for paddling
      • Odd-toed ungulates
        • Mesaxonic feet
      • Hindgut fermenters
        • Including Perissodactyla
          • Mainly grazers: relatively few species remain globally. Used to be more biodiverse
      • Foregut fermenters
        • Including ruminant Artiodactyla
    • Diagnostics
      • Enlarged carnassial teeth
      • Large conical canines
      • Jaw movement restricted to dorsal/ventral plane
      • Large sagittal crest (reduced)

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