multi-store model of memory

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      • Richard Atkinson & Richard Shiffrin (1968)
      • STM, LTM and sensory memory (SM)
        • SM is eyes, ears, nose etc & corresponding areas of brain
        • SM always receiving info
          • receives no attention so remains in SM for v. little time
      • attention focused on area of SM = moves to STM
      • info in STM will decay quickly with no rehearsal
        • also disappears if displaced (limited capacity)
      • further rehearsal (elaborative) = transfer from STM to LTM
      • strong evidence of 3 qualitatively diff. stores
      • provides account of memory in terms of structure and process
      • clear predictions about memory so can be tested by psychologists
      • oversimplifies memory structure and process
      • STM & LTM are not unitary stores
        • (non-unitary STM) KF suffered brain damage - probs with verbal info but normal visuall info
        • patients with amnesia - can damage parts of LTM
        • Schahter suggested 4 LT stores
          • episodic - mem from yesterday/film you saw last week
          • procedural - riding a bike/learning to read
          • semantic - knowledge about world e.g. words
          • perceptual-representation system - e.g ability to recognise _O_O_GA_ as TOBOGGAN
      • rehearsal vs. processing
        • not only maintenance rehearsal which transfers info from STM to LTM
        • deeper processing leads to enhanced memory
        • elaborative rehearsal (deeper/semantic analysis)
      • separation of STM & LTM?
        • Logie (1999) - STM relies on LTM so cannot come first
          • need LTM to form meaningul 'chunks'
        • Ruchkin et al. (2003) - STM is part of LTM which can be activated at any given time


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