Memory booklet 1

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• Models of Memory
• Memory= the process by which we retain information about what has happened in the past
• STM= memory for events in the present or immediate past
• LTM=  memory for events that have happened in the distant past
• Duration= unlimited          Capacity= unlimited           Encoding= semantically
• C= LINTON - spent 6 yrs writing a diary of 5,500 personal events. tested herself for recognition each month and found excellent recall of dates
• D= SHEPHERD - found ppts were able to recognise pictures seen 1 hour earlier when viewed amongst other pictures and still able to recall 50% of photos 4 months later
• Duration = 20 seconds       Capacity= 5-9chunks       Encoding= Acoustic
• C= JACOBS- 'Digit Span Technique' test STM capacity, involves showing people list of numbers and asking to recall them in same order, this continues until they make a mistake. Found people could recall average 9.3 numbers.
• D= PETERSON&PETERSON- told people to take note of 3 letters and 3 numbers and count backwards down numbers for duration of time, after they had to write down original 3 letters
• E= BADDELEY- gave ppts lists of words acoustically similar or dissimilar and words semantically similar or dissimilar. Found ppts had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not LTM
• Duration= unlimited          Capacity= unlimited           Encoding= semantically
• C= LINTON - spent 6 yrs writing a diary of 5,500 personal events. tested herself for recognition each month and found excellent recall of dates
• D= SHEPHERD - found ppts were able to recognise pictures seen 1 hour earlier when viewed amongst other pictures and still able to recall 50% of photos 4 months later
• Evaluation of Research into Nature of Memory - 1. research is done artificially in a set up lab experiment. meaning extraneous variables can be controlled but studies = unrealistic        2. Research fails to take into account individual differences as nature of memory varies greatly between diff people so cant generalise findings to everyone.
• The Multi-Store Model
• Developed by Atkinson& Shiffrin 1968, it explains how information flows from 1 storage system to another with 3 permanent structures, SM, STM,LTM
• Info received through the senses enters the SM, small fraction added to and selected for processing in STM. If not attended to sensory info is forgotten or not processed first.                   Once in STM, if info is actively processed it may be transferred to LTM for permanent storage.
• Evidence for Model- BRAIN SCANNING, pet scans have found diff parts of the brain are active when doing diff tasks, eg, a task that requires STM the prefrontal cortex is active whereas LTM task activates the hippocampus, showing they must be stored in diff parts of brain
• Case Studies, evidence found from individuals with brain damage, eg, case of HM- suffered brain damage as a result of operation to remove his hippocampus in order to reduce severe epilepsy he suffered. As result, he was no longer able to form new LTM but STM  not affected.
• Evidence for Model- BRAIN SCANNING, pet scans have found diff parts of the brain are active when doing diff tasks, eg, a task that requires STM the prefrontal cortex is active whereas LTM task activates the hippocampus, showing they must be stored in diff parts of brain
• Case Studies, evidence found from individuals with brain damage, eg, case of HM- suffered brain damage as a result of operation to remove his hippocampus in order to reduce severe epilepsy he suffered. As result, he was no longer able to form new LTM but STM  not affected.
• EVALUATION- Strong research evidence for there being separate memory stores               - Criticised for being too simplistic, evidence to suggest there is not just 1 single STM and LTM store                 - idea of rehearsal being only way to transfer info from STM to LTM has been criticised.
• The Working Memory Model
• Baddeley&Hitch questioned existence of a single STM store, arguing it was more complex
• They proposed that STM consists of 3 components, a central system with 2 subsidiary systems each with diff responsibilities. 3rd slave system later added in 2000, Episodic Buffer
• Central Executive= central component of working memory (manager), limited capacity but can process any info. Delegates tasks and decides what needs to be done. Watches what's happening in slave systems and takes over demanding tasks.
• Phonological Loop- deals with auditory info and rehearses info to prevent decay. Baddeley subdivided loop into 2 parts, phonological store & articulatory loop.
• WMM explains how it is possible to do 2 tasks at once as long as they involve separate parts of WMM but when they involve the same store it become difficult.
• EVIDENCE for WMM- Real life evidence from brain damaged patients & brain scans to suggest separate STM stores. E.g, KF , suffered brain damage resulting in difficultly dealing with verbal info in STM but normal ability to process visual info.