Models of Memory:

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  • Created by: gabbyb98
  • Created on: 14-03-15 22:15
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  • Models of Memory:
    • Working Memory Model Baddeley and Hitch(1974)
      • Instead of all information going into one single store, there are different systems for different types of information.
      • Central executive - resource allocation, small capacity Drives the whole system
        • Phonological loop - phonological store and articulatory process, maintenance rehearsal. Deals with auditory and speech-base information
          • Visuo-spatial sketchpad - visual cache and inner scribe. Deals with locations and movement
            • Central executive - resource allocation, small capacity Drives the whole system
              • Phonological loop - phonological store and articulatory process, maintenance rehearsal. Deals with auditory and speech-base information
                • Visuo-spatial sketchpad - visual cache and inner scribe. Deals with locations and movement
                • Episodic buffer - general store and integrates information from other stores as well as from LTM
          • Episodic buffer - general store and integrates information from other stores as well as from LTM
        • Evaluation of WMM
          • Strengths
            • Emphasises process rather than structure, unlike MSM.
            • Explains memory deficits of KF and SC
            • supported by dual task studies (Baddeley and Hitch, 1976)
          • Limitations
            • little direct evidence for how the central executive works
            • Working memory only involves STM so it is not a comprehensive model of memory (as it does not include SM or LTM).
      • Multi-Store Model Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
        • 1. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory.
          • 2. If attended to this information enters the short term memory.  (mainly acoustic coding)
            • Distinction between STM and LTM - Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) - gave ps a list of 20 words which they then had to recall. They remembered words from the start of the list (primacy effect) and the end of the list (recency effect) but forgot words from the middle.
              • Primacy effect occurs because words at the start are best rehearsed and transferred to LTM. Recency effect occurs because words at the end are still in STM when people are recalling.
          • evidence from Sperling (1960) - when ps were asked to recall all 12 items they remembered 5 items (42% accuracy). When asked to recall one row of 4 items, they remembered 3 (75%)
        • 3. Information from the STM is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed.
          • Attention and maintenance rehearsal - need to pay attention so the information can be encoding. Need to rehearse information in order for it to be transferred from STM to LTM.
        • MSM Evaluation
          • Strengths
            • Has stimulated a lot of research which leads to increased understandin
            • Serial position effect (Glanzer and Cunitz), role of hippocampus (Squire et al., 1992), case studies of brain damage (e.g. HM)
            • Includes details of structure process
          • Limitations
            • too simple
            • STM doesn't function as a unitary store, e.g. KF (Shallice and Warrington, 1970) - had brain damage which meant difficulty with verbal information in STM but no problem with processing visual information
            • Processing more important than maintenance rehearsal - Craik and Lockhart (1972) compared shallow, phonemic and semantic processing - concluded that things which are processed more deeply are more memorable because of the way they're processed

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