Models of Abnormality

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  • Created by: Tasleem
  • Created on: 19-01-13 20:56
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  • Models of Abnormality
    • Biological Model
      • Biochemistry
        • Hirschfield (1999)
      • Infection
        • Barr et al (1990)
      • Neuroanatomy
        • Post-mortem studies
      • Genetic factors
        • Kendler et al (198)
        • Kendler et al (1991)
        • Berrettini (2000)
      • Evaluation
        • Clearly successful with particular psychological conditions
        • Enormous influence on the terms used in mental disorders and their treatments
        • Drug therapies are effective for reducing symptoms
        • Doesn't work for all mental illnesses
        • Reductionist approach
        • Difficult to establish whether any biological difference between individuals with a mental disorder is a by-product of the disorder or a direct cause
        • Over-focus is physical symptoms
        • Only treats symptoms, not underlying cause
        • Can lead to labelling
        • Loss of personal responsibility
        • Patients may prefer to think of it in medical terms
        • Ethnocentric diagnosing
        • Drug therapy can cause ne problems
        • Doesn't consider environmental factors
    • Psychodynamic Model
      • Psychosexual stages of development
        • Oral
        • Anal
        • Phallic
        • Latency
        • Genital
      • Defence Mechanisms
        • Repression
        • Displacement
        • Projection
        • Denial
      • Kendlar et al (996)
      • Caspi et al (1996)
      • Evaluation
        • First systematic model of abnormality that focused on psychological factors
        • Supportive research on childhood trauma explanation
        • Blames parents and childhood too much
        • Psychoanalysis is still used today
        • Over emphasis on sexual factors
        • No solid scientific research
        • Ignores genetic factors
        • Individuals suffering are not to blame
        • False memory syndrome
        • Ignores importance of cultural differences in sexual attitudes and behaviour
        • Resolution occurs through accessing and coming to terms with repressed conflicts
        • Psychologists are not cheap
    • Behavioural Model
      • Classical conditioning
        • Pvlov's dogs
        • John B Watson and Rosalie Royner (1920)
        • Neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus which causes a conditioned response
      • Operant conditioning
        • Bandura (1986)
        • Mineka et al (1984)
        • Positive and negative reinforcement
      • Operant and Classical conditioning
        • Mowner (1947)
        • Menzies and Clarke (1993)
        • DiNardo et al (1988)
      • Evaluation
        • Treatment is based on 'changing behaviour' which is dehumanising
        • Treatments can be manipulative (aversion therapy)
        • Focuses on each individuals experiences and conditioning history means the model is sensitive to cultural and social factors
        • Not regarded an illness in this model
        • patients are not responsible
        • Basic concepts are easier to observe and measure than other models
        • Hard to test model because we are rarely able to know everything about a person
        • Exaggerates the importance of environmental factors
        • Minimises the role of internal processes which makes it harder to observe some disorders
        • Conditioning  is generally less important in humans than animals
        • Oversimplified and narrow
        • Small fraction of mental disorders depend on patients conditioning history
        • Effective therapies
    • Cognitive Model
      • Warren and Zgourides (1991)
      • Newmark et al (1973)
      • Beck (1976)
      • Lewinsohn et al (2001)
      • Evaluation
        • Very influential
        • Unclear whether distorted thoughts are cause or consequence
        • Focuses on internal, mental influences and individual power
        • Limited approach
        • Only applied to anxiety disorders and depression
        • Blames individual
        • Negative thoughts are often entirely rational and unfortunately accurate
    • Multi-Dimensional Approach
      • Diathesis
      • Stress
  • Enormous influence on the terms used in mental disorders and their treatments
  • Treatments can be manipulative (aversion therapy)
  • Not regarded an illness in this model
  • Exaggerates the importance of environmental factors

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