Models of addictive behaviour

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  • Created by: Izzy
  • Created on: 19-11-15 11:42
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  • Models of Addictive Behaviour
    • Stages
      • Initiation: Process where individuals begin to become addicted.
      • Maintenance: Process whereby people continue to behave addictively despite adverse consequences.
      • Relapse: Process whereby individuals who have given up their habit start to show signs and symptoms of the behaviour again.
    • Biological
      • Initiation
        • Genetic vulnerability.
          • Silverstein et al: Found biological factors may influence a persons first experience with cigarettes (nausea, choking) increasing likelihood of becoming a smoker.
          • if genetic play a role in gambling, it probably involves inheritance of personality traits. ie. extraversion, sensation-seeking.
      • Maintenance
        • Physical dependency: Biologically addictive effects
          • Nicotine titration model: suggests smokers smoke to maintain certain level of nicotine in their system. Ashton and Stepney: Suggest biological effects also interact with biological processes. ie. effect of nicotine on stress and attention levels.
          • Gambling: The adrenaline rush/social relaxation of gambling act as rewards to maintain addictive behaviour.
      • Relapse
        • Withdrawal effects: Negative reinforcement of avoidance
          • Nicotine withdrawal is associated with irritability and weight gain.
          • Gamblers miss the physiological rewards of stress reduction or excitement associated with gambling
    • Cognitive
      • Initiation
        • Perceived effects theory
          • Expectancies regarding the effects of smoking play a major role. Eiser et al: Veteran smokers transmit positive expectations about the effect of smoking to novices who might be otherwise put off by negative sensations.
          • Casinos exploit the sight of others winning to encourage positive expectations about the success of gambling,
      • Maintenance
        • Attributions
          • Eiser et al: Study of 10,000 British adolescents indicated that teenage smokers acquired expectations of addiction from veteran smokers and had an external locus of control about their health.
          • Cognitive distortions and attributions have been applied to persistent gambling in the face of repeated losses. ie. flexible attributions- where gamblers attribute success to their skill but failure to external influences eg. luck.
      • Relapse
        • Attitudes/ intentions/ beliefs.
          • Locus of control- those with external locus of control may fail to take responsibility for changing their own behaviour
          • Self-efficacy- those with low self efficacy may feel incapable of changing addictive behaviour.
          • Theory of reasoned action- ones own or others beliefs and attitudes about the benefits of changing may negatively affect the intention to do so.
    • Learning model
      • Initiation
        • Social learning theory
          • Suggests children learn addictive behaviour through observation of influential role model.
            • Because they selectively see positive rather than negative consequences (winning/popularity). Vicarious learning may lead to initiation of these behaviours.
      • Maintenance
        • Operant conditioning
          • Short term pleasure provides immediate positive reinforcement (reward) overrides long term negative effects (illness/debt) so addiction is maintained.
            • Avoiding unpleasant withdrawal symptoms is an example of negative reinforcement for continued use.
            • 'Variable ratio reinforcement' payout schedules may maintain gambling
      • Relapse
        • Classical conditioning
          • Environmental cues present during performance of addictive behaviour may become associated with that pleasure. The cues then act as prompts, creating a craving for that behaviour. eg. walking into a familiar bar, or seeing a friend with a cigarette/


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