Cell Cycle

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  • Cell Cycle
    • Interphase
      • G1 - the cell grows and carries out protein synthesis and other cellular functions.
      • S - The cell replicates its DNA. At the completion of this stage, all of the chromosomes have two chromatids 
      • G2 - the cytoplasmic organelles replicate
    • Why is it important?
      • Growth – multicellular organisms grow by producing new extra cells. Each new cell is genetically identical to the parent cell, and so can perform the same functions
      • Repair – damaged cells need to be replaced by new ones that perform the same functions and so need to be identical
      • Asexual Reproduction – single-celled organisms divide to produce two daughter cells that are separate organisms. Some multicellular organisms produce offspring from parts of the parent
      • Replacement – Red blood cells and skin cells are replaced by new ones
    • Mitosis
      • Prophase
        • DNA begins to condense into discrete bodies called chromosomes. The nuclear membrane breaks down. Also, centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell and form the spindle fibres. 
        • Metaphase
          • The membrane of the nucleus disintegrates and the chromosomes move to the middle . The chromatids align randomly along the middle of the cell, and the spindle fibres attach to the centromeres. 
          • Anaphase
            • The spindle fibres recoil, pulling the chromatid pairs apart, to each of the poles of the cell. The chromatids are led by centromere. 
            • Prophase
              • The nuclear membrane reforms around the two groups of chromatids, meaning that two new nuclei are formed, surrounding by one cytoplasm.
    • Cytokinesis
      • By the end of mitosis, there are two nuclei in one cytoplasm
        • During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm surrounding the two nuclei splits, forming two separate, genetically identical cells. 


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