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  • Mitosis
    • 1. Prophase
      • Replicated chromosomes supercoil
      • Using a light microscope, you can see pairs of sister chromatids at prophase
      • At this time the nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears
    • 2. Metaphase
      • Replicated chromosomes line up down the middle of the cell
      • Each chromosome becomes attached to a spindle thread by its centromere
    • 3. Anaphase
      • The replicated sister chromatids are separated from each other when the centromere splits
      • Each of the 'sisters' becomes an individual chromosome and are identical to the original chromosome
      • The spindle fibres shorten, pulling the sister chromatids (now chromosomes) further away from each other towards the poles
      • They assume a V-shape because the centromeres, attached to the spindle fibres, lead
    • 4. Telophase
      • Two new nuclei are formed
      • As the new chromosomes reach the poles of the cell, a new nuclear envelope forms around each set
      • The spindle breaks down and disappears, the chromosomes uncoil, so you can no longer see them under the light microscope
    • Cytokenesis
      • The whole cell now splits to form two new cells, each one containing a full set of chromosomes identical to that found in the original parent cell
    • Where does mitosis and cytokenesis occur?
      • Most animal cells
      • In plants, meristem cells


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