Parent and daughter cells

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 06-04-16 12:11
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  • MITOSIS and cell cycle:
    • Daughter cells produced must be able to carry out the same function as the parent cell.
    • Chromosomes are in the nucleus of EUKARYOTIC cells. Chromosomes contain molecules of DNA which contains genes. Chromsomes hold INSTRUCTIONS for making new cells.
    • The DNA that makes each chromosome are wrapped around proteins called HISTONES. DNA and histon proteins together are called CHROMATIN.
    • Before a cell can divide to produce 2 daughter cells, the DNA must be replicated. 2 replicas are produced. Each is an EXACT copy of the original and they reain held together at the CENTROMERE.
    • The replicas are called a PAIR of SISTER CHROMATIDS. When separated from each other, each will end up as a new daughter cell.
    • Chromatin coils to form VISIBLE CHROMOSOMES. At this stage, chromosomes can take up stains and viewed under a light microscope.
    • If the genes are not copied precisely, the resulting MUTATIONS may mean the new cells FAIL to function.
    • Factors affecting the speed of the cycle are the SPECIES, cell TYPE, availability of NUTRIENTS.
    • Cell cycle is divided into stages:
      • INTERPHASE which includes the S PHASE and GROWTH phase.
        • S phase = DNA REPLICATES. Growth phase = Proteins, organelles + other components are made.
      • MITOSIS - The nucleus DIVIDED and chromatids SEPARATE.
        • Mitosis is only a small part of the cell cycle.
      • CYTOKINESIS - The cytoplasm DIVIDES/CLEAVES.


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