Mitosis

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  • Mitosis
    • What?
      • Cell division that produces genetically identical cells
      • Parent cell divides to produce two daughter cells
      • Needed for growth and repair of damaged tissue
    • 1: Interphase
      • DNA unravelled and replicated
      • Organelles replicated
      • No division happening
    • 2: Prophase
      • Chromosomes condense, get shorter/fatter
      • Centrioles move to opposite poles of cell and form spindle across cell
      • Nuclear envelope breaks down, chromosomes free in cytoplasm
    • 3: Metaphase
      • Chromosomes line up along equator of cell
      • Become attached to spindle by centromere
    • 4: Anaphase
      • Centromeres divide, separating each pair of sister chromatids
      • Spindle fibres pull chromatids to opposite poles of spindle
      • Chromatids v-shaped
    • 5: Telophase
      • Chromatids uncoil, become long/thin again
      • Nuclear envelope reforms around each group of chromosomes
      • Two nuclei. Cytoplasm divides, two daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell (cytokinesis)
    • Cancer
      • Mutation causes uncontrolled growth
      • Cells keep dividing to form tumor
      • Treatments designed to disrupt cell cycle which kills tumour cells. Also kills healthy cells
      • Chemo prevents synthesis of enzymes needed for replication, cell unable to enter synthesis phase so dies
      • Radiation damages DNA. When cell checks itself for damage it will kill itself

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