Mississippi flood, causes, effects and management

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  • Created by: Ellie R
  • Created on: 07-06-13 16:57
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  • MISSISSIPPI CAUSES AND EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT - USA 1993
    • CAUSES
      • The rains continued throughout May, June.
      • Urbanisation of the Flood Plain - reducing infiltration rates etc.
      • Poorly built non-federal levees
      • The development of unsuitable sites for development
      • The channelization of the river - especially at St Louis and July
    • EFFECTS
      • 50 people died
      • 62,000 families were evacuated
      • 72,000 homes were flooded
      • 70% of levees were damaged
      • 55 towns were wrecked
      • 6 million acres of farmland was flooded
      • River traffic halted for several months
      • Crop losses were put at $2.6 billion
      • insurance pay-outs reached $12 billion in property alone
      • Stagnant water attracted mosquitoes and rats and there was a threat of disease.
      • Electricity lines collapsed leaving many towns without power.
    • MANAGEMENT
      • DAMS AND RESERVOIRS
        • 6 huge reservoirs have been built along the River Missouri to store excess water with a further 19 along the Tennessee River and its tributaries.
      • AFFORESTATION
        • The Tennessee Valley Authority has been increasing tree cover to delay run off into rivers.
      • LEVEES
        • Have been strengthened with concrete mattresses to reduce erosion of the river banks.
      • DIVERSIONARY SPILLWAYS
        • These are overflow channels which can store excess water in times of flood and release it after the risk of floods have passed.
      • FEMA
        • The Federal Emergency Management Agency has published risk assessments and encourages settlements at risk to move off the floodplain.
      • FLOOD FORECASTING
        • The National Weather Authority are now responsible for flood warnings along the river.

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