Milgrams variations

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  • Milgram's variations
    • variation 5 - Increasing Realism
      • set out to measure situational factors that may encourage dissent
        • More modest  lab, Mr Wallace mentioned he had a heart condition, ppt heard pre recorder learners scream- as many thought ppt knew shocks won't real- this aimed to increase moral strain
          • found exact same result 65%, showing validity of experiment
    • variations 10 - run down office block
      • many ppt said university led to trusting experimenter
      • - shopping district Bridgeport, run down office block, near Yale, were told this was a study run by private firm + research for industry
      • results 47.5% obedience , transcript show ppt fear for learner safety + questioned legitimacy of research
      • conclusion prestigious location was important situational factor that affected level of obedience, shabby setting decreased legitimacy of researcher, fact it was 'scientific ' research enough to encourage high levels of obedience
    • vartion 7- telephonic instruction
      • gave orders over phone
      • results -22.5% obedience
      • m any lied over phone, said shocking but were not, usually administered lowest shock
      • ppt found easy to disobey, but became obedient when research her in room
      • conclusion - physical presence of authority figure is important situational factor that increases obedience and decreases dissent
      • Evaluation- has been replicated finding similar results
        • sedikides +Jackson 1990 New York zooo, tested when AF not present, obedience dropped
          • showing Milgrams results on proximity generalise well to naturalistic situations
    • variation 13 ordinary man gives orders
      • aim- would people obey due to strength of command or status of person giving command
      • procedure
        • when ppt arrive 2 confederates, not 1 (learner /recorder),
          • mr William/researcher gets call, flustered, leaves  and asks (confederate) to get learner to learn word pair
            • recorder enthustaticallysuggest to administer shock, to increase 15 v each time wrong
      • results 20% obedience
      • conclusion shows order must come from legitimate source to be effective, important situational factor may encourage dissent
      • evaluation - lacks internal validity, was awkward - hard to achieve orders coming from person w/ no legitimate authority
        • Obedience levels may be lower when person give order is unrelated to authority figure or institution
    • overall evaluation- 900 ppt, over many months, could be people discussed shocks weren't real
      • may have jeopardised- validity of results as ppt acted in way thought was expected of them, not natural, demand characteristics


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