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  • Milgram
    • Aim
      • whether individuals will act in an inhuman way to a stranger to obey an order
    • Procedure
      • advert in a local paper
        • 'memory and learning experiment'
        • attracts a certain type of volunteer
          • payment for participating
            • class bias
          • self- selected sample
        • Deception
      • took place at yale
        • prestigious
        • demand characteristic
          • investigator effect
            • participants more trusting of the experimenter
      • confederate middle aged and wearing a white coat
        • explained the nature of the experiment
          • deception
        • pretended to draw lots for conditions but the real participant was always the teacher
      • Teacher shown a range of switches from 15v to 450v
        • volts were labelled with their danger eg 135v-180 v severe shock
        • learner given an electric shock infront of teacher
        • teacher gave learner a memory task
          • If the learner got it wrong then the teacher had to give them an electric shock
          • each time they got it wrong the strength of the electric shock would increase
      • learner would purposefully get one wrong after they got three right
        • screams got louder
        • at 180v they complained  of a weak heart
        • 300 v they banged on the wall
        • 315v their was silence
    • prods for f the experimenter refused
      • 'the experiment requires you to go on
      • 'you have no choice you must go on'
    • Findings
      • they shook, shuttered and sweated
      • all participants went to 300v
        • despite it being labelled as intense shock
        • 65% went to 450v
          • colleagues only predated 2.6% would go to 240v
        • only 35% disobeyed
      • showed that anyone is capable of committing such acts to obey
        • research for German Nazi soldiers
    • Issues
      • lack of informed consent
      • deception
      • right to withdraw was denied
      • harm to patient
        • forced to continue even though they were distressed
    • Milgram's defence
      • participants tod the shocks weren't real ad introduced to unharmed learner
        • debriefing
      • obedient participants told their behaviour was normal
      • disobedient participants told their behaviour was desirable
      • questionnaires
        • 92% responded
        • 80 were glad theyd taken part and 70% said theyd learned from this
        • participants visited by psychiatrist one year on
          • no longer term damage


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