Milgram (1963)

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  • Created by: Nikki189
  • Created on: 07-05-15 19:22
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  • Milgram (1963)
    • Context + Aims
      • Obedience can be behaviour which can override sympathy, moral and ethics
      • Obedience refers to a type of social influence
      • In response to a direct order from perceived authority
      • Interested in Nazi Germany
      • Influenced by Adorno (1950)
        • More likely to be obedient if brought up by authoritative figure
        • Questionnaire to measure authoritairian personalities
          • F-Scale
      • Interested in the social psychological factors - holocaust
      • Aimed at better understanding of human obedience
      • Concerned with destructive obedience
        • Obedience? even if known pain inflicted on others
      • Aim to replicate situations like holocaust
      • How many people would deliver potentially fatal shocks
        • because of authoritative figure orders
    • Procedures
      • P's recruited through deceptive newspaper advert
        • "volunteers on memory"
      • 40 men
        • 20-50yrs
        • jobs- unskilled to school teachers and engineers
      • designed to increased anxiety
      • Yale- prestigious
      • Experimenter wore lab coat
        • Seems intelligent
          • Therefore important
      • Introduced to Mr. Wallace
        • Confederate
        • Teacher and learner
      • Saw confederate get strapped to a chair
        • Connected to electrodes
          • Heart issue announced
      • P unable to see wallace during the study
        • Communicated over intercom
      • Read pairs of words. Techer read out word
        • Learner had to match the word
          • if correct-moved on
            • if iwrong- electric shock
              • Every new wrong- higher shock
      • 15volts-450volts
        • after 180- learner stated that he cant handle it
          • 270 volys-scremed
            • 300 volts silence
      • throughout verbal prods given if the p resisted
      • debriefed afterwards
    • Findings + Conclusions
      • 100% - 300v
      • 65% - 450v
      • 35% stopped between 300-330v
      • 3 people seized
      • 1 violently convulsed
      • 14 had nervous laughter and smiling
      • p's sweated, trembled and stuttered
      • follow up questionnaire from 92%
        • 84% glad to take part
        • 15% neutral
        • 80%-wanted more experiments like this to be carried out
        • 74% felt that they learnt personal importance
      • Germans arent so different
      • People obey orders because of the situation that they are in
      • P's felt that they had no choice
      • Contributory factors
        • took place at Yale- prestigious
        • P's felt under obligation because they where paid
        • thinks its a chance consequence that is teacher not learner.
        • Unusual setting
        • P's given little time to think about their actions
    • Methodology
      • Sample
        • Andocentric
        • Ethnocentric
        • small sample size
        • small age range
        • all must have a similar personality to volunteer
      • Ethics
        • psychological harm
        • some physical harm
        • deception
        • not really aloud a RTW (difficult)
      • Validity
        • Controlly- good IntVal
        • No demand characteristics
        • Lacks mundane realism
        • ethnocentric
        • low ecological valifity
      • Reliability
        • easily repeated because controlled
        • internally reliable - lab experiment
        • +Hofling et al
        • -Kilham and mann
    • Alternative Research
      • Hofling et al- obedience in hospital. 21/22 obeyed. Nuses. Overdose.Fake doctor. Percieved authority, distructive behaviour
      • Luttke summaried findings of milgrams replications. destructive obedience. different room-> more likely to obey
      • Kilham and Mann- lower obedience rate in AUS men-40%, women-16%. obedience not universal
      • Burley and McGuiness. 50% obeyed in UK students. Obedience not universal

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