Milgram

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  • MILGRAM
    • controlled observation
      • reliable and replicable
      • laboratory style
      • high control of extraneous variabls
      • lacked mundane realism
    • participants
      • 40 male participants, aged 20 - 50 from New Haven area
        • obtained from newspaper article offering $4.50 for participation
          • un-representative self selecting sample
        • small sample size - hard to generalise
    • results
      • 100% continued to 300 volts
      • 26/40 65% continued to end 450 volts
      • 26 obeyed and 14 disobeyed
    • conclusions
      • inhumane acts can be done by ordinary people
      • people obey those who they consider legitimate authority
      • individual differences e.g. personality influence the extent of obedience
    • ethics
      • considerable stress
        • health risks - 3 people had seizures
      • didn't obtain consent
      • no right to withdraw
        • payments made people feel obliged
        • verbal prods
      • full debrief given afterwards
    • validity
      • low ecological validity
      • lacks mundane realism
      • situation respected
    • reliability
      • results are consistent
      • easy to replicate

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