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  • Milgram
    • Theories
      • Obedience is a active/ deliberate form of social influence
      • People usually obey to authoritative figures
    • Background
      • Did Nazi's just obey Hitler? Why did millions of people die?
      • Obedience overrides ethnics/ empathy/ morality
      • Te aim was to test how far people will obey to an authorative figure
    • Research method
      • Controlled observation (no IV)
      • In a lab at Yale Uni, very standardised
      • Data was gathered through observations (experimenter in the same room/one way mirrors/tape recording/ pictures taken and notes made)
      • 14 Psychology seniors predicted the amount of ps' that would administer 450V (they guessed mean 1.2%)
    • Sample
      • 40 males aged 20-50
      • From New Haven area
      • Obtained by a newspaper advert and direct mail
      • Paid £4.50 for arriving
      • Told experiment was about memory and learning
    • Procedure
      • Ps' were always given the role of a teacher through a hat pick
      • The learner was strapped to a chair with electrodes on their arms
      • Teachers were given a test shock of 45V to experience it
      • The teacher was placed in a different room and given a memory pair list and a shock machine (15V-450V in 15V increments)
      • Mr Wallace pre recorded answers, and gave (approx.) 3:1 wrong:right answers. At 300V he stopped replying and pounded on the wall
      • Experimenter prodded teacher if they didn't want to continue eg. "Please go on"
      • Experiment ended when ps' was disobedient or reached 450V
      • The ps' was debriefed
    • Findings
      • 100% (14) of ps' shocked to 300V
      • 65% (26) of ps' shocked to 450V
      • Many ps' showed extreme stress eg. seizures/ nervous laughter
    • Conclusions
      • Inhumane acts are done by normal people
      • People will obey authority figures, even if morally wrong
      • Individual differences influence the extent of obedience


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