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  • Migration
    • Immigration- movement into a society
      • More ethnic society- 2011= 14% of uk population was an ethnic minority
      • UK= more immigrants (583,000) than emigrants (323,000) 2014
        • 47% of immigrants were non EU citizens = 38% were. 14% (British returning home)
      • 2011- average UK passport holder was 41, non UK passport holder was 31
      • Being younger, immigrants are more fertile and produce babies
        • Older migrants return to their country of origin to retire
        • Children will soon join working labour force
        • Can work and pay Tax for pensions & NHS, transport etc
    • Emigration- British people emigrated to USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and S Africa
      • Push factor- economic recession and unemployment  at home
      • Pull factors- higher wages & better opportunities
    • Differentiation-super diversity (Steven Vertovec)
      • Citizens - full citizenship rights; hard for immigrants to acquire
      • Denizens- privileged foreign nationals welcomes by the state eg. billionaires or highly paid employees of multinational companies
      • Helots (literally slaves) are the most exploited. State/employers regard them as disposable units of labour power)= unskilled= poorly paid
    • Feminisation of migration= half of all migrants are female
      • Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Hochschild observe that care, domestic and sex work in western countries like UK & USA is done by women from poor countries
        • Due to 1. the expansion of service occupations has led to an increasing demand for female labour
        • 3. Western men remain unwilling to perform domestic labour
        • 4. The failure of the state to provide adequate childcare
          • Migrant nannies provide care and affection for their employers' children at the expense of their own children left behind in their home country
        • Isabel Shutes- 40% of adult care nurses in UK are mostly female migrants
    • Migrant identities- may develop hybrid identities eg. John Eade- 2nd gen of Bangladeshi Muslims in Britain= Muslims, Bengali & British
      • Politicisation of migration - Assimilation = 1st policy to encourage immigrants to adopt the language, values and customs of host culture to make them 'be like us'
        • Multiculturalism- accepts that migrants may wish to retain a separate cultural identity but may be limited to more superficial aspects of cultural diversity


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