Microphone Types and Polar Patterns

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  • Microphone Types
    • Condenser Microphone
      • Wide, extended and generally more linear frequency response
      • Detailed, clear sound with good high frequency response
      • Sensitive with good transient response
      • Phantom powered
      • High output levels
        • Less gain required at the mixer
    • Dynamic Microphone
      • More colouration in the frequency response
      • Good for high sound pressure levels
      • Slow transient response
      • Robust and reliable
      • Quite low output levels
        • High gain needed at the mixer
      • Low level of performer handling noise
  • Polar Patterns
    • Omnidirectional
      • Exhibit a wide, flat, extended frequency response
      • Give good pick up of low and high frequencies
      • Will pick up a lot of room reverberation
      • Poor isolation of sound source
      • Not affected by proximity effect
    • Cardioid
      • Rejects reverberation, background noise and spill
      • Gives better isolation
      • Good for stereo coincident or near-coincident miking
      • Exhibits the proximity effect
      • Widest front angle pick up and best rear rejection
    • Hypercardioid
      • Most side rejection
      • Most isolation
      • Most reverberation, spill and background noise rejection
    • Bi-directional
      • Good front and rear pick up
      • Maximum rejection of sound arriving at the sides
    • Shotgun
      • Narrow front pick up area
    • Polar patterns depend on the placement of the microphone  in relation to venue and sound source


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