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  • Microbes can enter the body through the mouth, nose and cuts or bites in the skin.
    • A microbe which is an organism too small to be seen by the naked eye
    • Microbes
      • Microbes and Pathogens
        • Pathogens
          • Pathogens can cause problems by either releasing toxins (poisons) or invading and damaging our cells (if they're viruses)
            • Examples of diseases pathogens cause are..
              • Bacteria causes Cholera.
              • Viruses cause Influenza (flu)
              • Fungi causes Athlete's Foot
              • Protozoa causes Malaria
        • Two ways in which doctors help the body's fight against infections are;
          • Vaccination
            • In which pathogens are introduced into the body in a weakened form. This process causes the body to produce enough white blood cells to protect itself against the pathogens while not getting a disease
          • Antibiotics
            • They are effective against bacteria and some strains of bacteria are resistant to antibiotics
      • Microbes (bacteria & viruses can cause diseases. There are billions of microorganisms insude us and on our skin
        • Over 95% of them inside us, are helpful and harmless. The 5% remaining are not nice and can multiply rapidly inside us and cause infectious illnesses; the harmful ones are called pathogens
      • Microbes have two ways of defending itself
        • The first line of defence is to keep the pathogen out. The body is like a fort, the outer defences incude our thick skin, sticky mucus and cilia in the respiratory sysem, enzymes in tears and acid in the stomach which kills most pathogens that enter our stomach via food
        • The second line of the defence kicks in if a pathogen does manage to get through normal objects or via a cut or graze. What happens in that our white blood cells attack the microbes in many ways and usually manage to destroy them eg. providin a scab for protection.


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