Metabolism and Exercise

  • Created by: India.02
  • Created on: 01-05-19 19:17
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  • Metabolism and Exercise
    • Metabolism
      • The sum of all reactions that happen in a cell or the body
      • Large molecules broken down into smaller ones
        • Glucose broken down in respiration - respiration transfers energy to power all reactions in the body that make molecules
        • Excess protein broken down to produce urea - then excreted in urine
      • Large molecules made from smaller ones
        • Lipid molecules made from one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids
        • Glucose combined with nitrate ions to make amino acids - then into proteins
        • Small glucose molecules joined together in reactions to form starch , glycogen and cellulose
    • Exercise
      • Respiration
        • Muscles need to respire to contract - exercise makes muscles contract more frequently so more energy is needed - increased respiration
        • Breathing volume and breath volume increase to get more oxygen into the blood - heart rate increases to get oxygenated blood around the body - removes carbon dioxide quicker
        • Vigorous exercise means body can't supply enough oxygen - begin to respire anaerobically
          • Lactic acid builds in muscles - painful
            • Formed from incomplete oxidation of glucose
          • Can also cause muscle fatigue - muscles get tired and stop contracting efficiently
      • Oxygen Debt
        • Amount of extra oxygen your body needs to react with the build up of lactic acid and remove it from cells - oxygen reacts to form carbon dioxide and water
        • Lungs, heart and blood couldn't keep up
        • Heavy breathing to get more oxygen into the blood - transported to muscle cells
        • Pulse and breathing rate stay high whilst there are high levels of lactic acid and carbon dioxide
        • Blood can also enter muscles and transport lactic acid to the liver - converted back to glucose
      • Investigate Effect of Exercise
        • Take resting heart rate by holding two fingers on the inside of wrist or neck for 1 minute
        • Take pulse after 5 minutes of sitting, walking, jogging and running
        • Plot results on a bar chart - pulse increases with intensity of exercise as your body needs to get more oxygen to the muscles - to remove carbon dioxide
          • To reduce errors - investigate as a group and calculate average

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