Meta-ethics mindmap

  • Created by: gemshort
  • Created on: 05-01-18 10:04
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  • Meta-ethics
    • Ethical naturalism
      • Ethical terms can be defined using the same 'natural' terms that we would use to define maths or science
      • Morals could be based on the same kind of observation of the natural world as used in scientiic observation
      • Naturalists come to their ethical conclusions using non-ethical evidence
        • i.e. in the case of hedonists, pleasure is the non-ethical element
      • F.H. Bradley - a moral perspective was determined from self-realisation and observing one's position in a society
        • 'Know your station and its duty'
    • Intuitionism
      • G.E. Moore and the naturalistic fallacy
        • Good is indefinable - it is a simple idea like 'yellow'
        • You cannot use a non-moral premise to establish a moral conclusion
      • H.A. Prichard
        • Moral obligation presents itself directly to our intuition
        • Not all people can intuit moral truth because some people have clearer moral intuitions than others
      • W.D. Ross
        • Goodness cannot be defined in natural terms and moral principles cannot be absolute
        • Developed prima facie duties - in a moral dilemma, the duties we have are apparent
          • Seven prima facie duties: promise keeping, reparation for harm, gratitude, justice, beneficence, self-improvement and non-malevolence
    • Emotivism and prescriptivism
      • A.J. Ayer (emotivism)
        • Meaningful statements must be verified synthetically or analytically
        • Moral arguments serve no real purpose because they are an expression of feeling
      • C.L. Stevenson (emotivism)
        • Moral judgements contain two elements: an expression of an attitude based on belief and a persuasive element which seeks to influence others

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